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TABLE 1

Physical and metabolic characteristics of the study populations in the cross-sectional, prospective, and longitudinal analyses

Cross-sectional analysis
Prospective analysis
Longitudinal analysis
Mean ± SDRangeNonprogressorsProgressorsBaselineFollow-up
n 352  218 54 81 81 
Age (years) 27 ± 6 18–47 27 ± 6 27 ± 6 26 ± 6 30 ± 7 
Body weight (kg) 94.3 ± 21.8 49.5–181.1 91.0 ± 22.2 97.8 ± 21.1* 92.9 ± 24.3 98.9 ± 26.0 
Body fat (%) 32 ± 8 13–49 30 ± 8 35 ± 7 30 ± 8 32 ± 8 
Waist (cm) 42.4 ± 6.7 26.0–66.5 41.3 ± 7.0 43.6 ± 6.0 43.6 ± 7.5 43.6 ± 7.5 
Waist-to-thigh ratio 1.65 ± 0.17 1.21–2.25 1.63 ± 0.16 1.64 ± 0.17 1.62 ± 0.13 1.70 ± 0.15 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.8 ± 0.6 3.4–6.6 4.7 ± 0.6 5.2 ± 0.6 4.8 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.4* 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 240 ± 108 54–738 222 ± 102 246 ± 102 198 ± 90 228 ± 90 
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l) 6.6 ± 1.6 2.6–10.9 5.8 ± 1.2 6.7 ± 0.8 5.7 ± 1.1 6.8 ± 1.7 
M-low 2.7 ± 1.1 1.3–8.9 3.00 ± 1.31 2.37 ± 0.70 3.1 ± 1.4 2.6 ± 0.9 
M-high (mg/kg EMBS/min) 8.8 ± 2.1 3.2–14.2 9.28 ± 2.08 8.59 ± 1.82* 9.2 ± 2.1 8.7 ± 2.2* 
AIR (pmol/l) 1,482 ± 996 6–7,518 1590 ± 954 1212 ± 792* 1,554 ± 942 1,632 ± 1,080 
Basal EGO (mg/kg EMBS/min) 1.91 ± 0.23 1.32–2.60 1.91 ± 0.25 1.91 ± 0.26 1.91 ± 0.24 1.96 ± 0.25 
WBC (cell/mm38,107 ± 2,021 3,700–1,1900 7,877 ± 1,993 8,555 ± 1,780 7,643 ± 1,997 8,215 ± 2,089* 
Neutrophil count (cell/mm34,977 ± 1,760 1,820–1,1587 4,900 ± 1,727 5,110 ± 1,655 4,637 ± 1,710 5,003 ± 1,6204 
Lymphocyte count (cell/mm32,441 ± 78 168–5,593 2,373 ± 696 2,576 ± 813 2,357 ± 723 2,481 ± 789 
Monocyte count (cell/mm3440 ± 250 0–1,118 478 ± 235 352 ± 290§ 433 ± 216 476 ± 185 
Eosinophil count (cell/mm3196 ± 157 0–720 189 ± 155 225 ± 204 217 ± 158 204 ± 144 
Basophil count (cell/mm340 ± 52 0–246 47 ± 6 47 ± 13 50 ± 5 68 ± 8* 
Cross-sectional analysis
Prospective analysis
Longitudinal analysis
Mean ± SDRangeNonprogressorsProgressorsBaselineFollow-up
n 352  218 54 81 81 
Age (years) 27 ± 6 18–47 27 ± 6 27 ± 6 26 ± 6 30 ± 7 
Body weight (kg) 94.3 ± 21.8 49.5–181.1 91.0 ± 22.2 97.8 ± 21.1* 92.9 ± 24.3 98.9 ± 26.0 
Body fat (%) 32 ± 8 13–49 30 ± 8 35 ± 7 30 ± 8 32 ± 8 
Waist (cm) 42.4 ± 6.7 26.0–66.5 41.3 ± 7.0 43.6 ± 6.0 43.6 ± 7.5 43.6 ± 7.5 
Waist-to-thigh ratio 1.65 ± 0.17 1.21–2.25 1.63 ± 0.16 1.64 ± 0.17 1.62 ± 0.13 1.70 ± 0.15 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.8 ± 0.6 3.4–6.6 4.7 ± 0.6 5.2 ± 0.6 4.8 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.4* 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 240 ± 108 54–738 222 ± 102 246 ± 102 198 ± 90 228 ± 90 
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l) 6.6 ± 1.6 2.6–10.9 5.8 ± 1.2 6.7 ± 0.8 5.7 ± 1.1 6.8 ± 1.7 
M-low 2.7 ± 1.1 1.3–8.9 3.00 ± 1.31 2.37 ± 0.70 3.1 ± 1.4 2.6 ± 0.9 
M-high (mg/kg EMBS/min) 8.8 ± 2.1 3.2–14.2 9.28 ± 2.08 8.59 ± 1.82* 9.2 ± 2.1 8.7 ± 2.2* 
AIR (pmol/l) 1,482 ± 996 6–7,518 1590 ± 954 1212 ± 792* 1,554 ± 942 1,632 ± 1,080 
Basal EGO (mg/kg EMBS/min) 1.91 ± 0.23 1.32–2.60 1.91 ± 0.25 1.91 ± 0.26 1.91 ± 0.24 1.96 ± 0.25 
WBC (cell/mm38,107 ± 2,021 3,700–1,1900 7,877 ± 1,993 8,555 ± 1,780 7,643 ± 1,997 8,215 ± 2,089* 
Neutrophil count (cell/mm34,977 ± 1,760 1,820–1,1587 4,900 ± 1,727 5,110 ± 1,655 4,637 ± 1,710 5,003 ± 1,6204 
Lymphocyte count (cell/mm32,441 ± 78 168–5,593 2,373 ± 696 2,576 ± 813 2,357 ± 723 2,481 ± 789 
Monocyte count (cell/mm3440 ± 250 0–1,118 478 ± 235 352 ± 290§ 433 ± 216 476 ± 185 
Eosinophil count (cell/mm3196 ± 157 0–720 189 ± 155 225 ± 204 217 ± 158 204 ± 144 
Basophil count (cell/mm340 ± 52 0–246 47 ± 6 47 ± 13 50 ± 5 68 ± 8* 

Data are means ± SD. Significant differences between progressors and nonprogressors in the prospective analysis and between baseline and follow-up variables in the longitudinal analysis are indicated as follows:

*

P < 0.05,

P < 0.001,

P < 0.0001, and

§

P < 0.01. EMBS = fat-free mass + 17.7 kg. EGO, endogenous glucose output.

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