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Table 2—

Relationship between patient characteristics and HRQOL (EQ5D utility scores)

Univariate analyses
Multivariate analyses
CoefficientPCoefficientP
Age (per year) −0.003 0.0001 −0.002 0.0139 
Female sex −0.087 0.0001 −0.083 0.0001 
Duration since diagnosis (per year) −0.006 0.0001   
Treatment type (three categories)     
    Diet versus oral 0.026 0.2397   
    Insulin versus oral −0.134 0.0001   
Insulin therapy −0.139 0.0001 −0.077 0.0009 
Presence of any complications −0.114 0.0001   
Per complication category     
    Microvascular only −0.085 0.0001 −0.068 0.0015 
    Macrovascular only −0.075 0.0026 −0.077 0.0017 
    Microvascular and macrovascular −0.191 0.0001 −0.169 0.0001 
Hypertension −0.011 0.4773   
Obesity (if BMI >30 kg/m2−0.067 0.0001 −0.044 0.0153 
Hyperlipidemia 0.013 0.4712   
Microalbuminuria −0.012 0.6349   
Blood glucose (per mmol/l) −0.004 0.0669   
HbA1c (per percentage unit) −0.019 0.0014   
Model intercept   0.986 0.0001 
Adjusted r square    0.1166 
    (df=959) 
Univariate analyses
Multivariate analyses
CoefficientPCoefficientP
Age (per year) −0.003 0.0001 −0.002 0.0139 
Female sex −0.087 0.0001 −0.083 0.0001 
Duration since diagnosis (per year) −0.006 0.0001   
Treatment type (three categories)     
    Diet versus oral 0.026 0.2397   
    Insulin versus oral −0.134 0.0001   
Insulin therapy −0.139 0.0001 −0.077 0.0009 
Presence of any complications −0.114 0.0001   
Per complication category     
    Microvascular only −0.085 0.0001 −0.068 0.0015 
    Macrovascular only −0.075 0.0026 −0.077 0.0017 
    Microvascular and macrovascular −0.191 0.0001 −0.169 0.0001 
Hypertension −0.011 0.4773   
Obesity (if BMI >30 kg/m2−0.067 0.0001 −0.044 0.0153 
Hyperlipidemia 0.013 0.4712   
Microalbuminuria −0.012 0.6349   
Blood glucose (per mmol/l) −0.004 0.0669   
HbA1c (per percentage unit) −0.019 0.0014   
Model intercept   0.986 0.0001 
Adjusted r square    0.1166 
    (df=959) 
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