Table 2 —

Relative risks (95% CI) of hip fracture by diabetes status, the Iowa Women’s Health Study, 1986–1997

Diabetes statusNumber of fracturesAge-adjusted RR (95% CI)Multivariate-adjusted RR (95% CI)
No diabetes* 452 1.00 1.00 
Type 1 diabetes 14.1 (5.85, 34.2) 12.25 (5.05, 29.7) 
Type 2 diabetes 38 1.75 (1.25, 2.43) 1.70 (1.21, 2.38) 
Duration of diabetes*    
 No diabetes 452 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetes    
  0–4 years 11 1.47 (0.81, 2.67) 1.44 (0.79, 2.63) 
  5–12 years 11 1.46 (0.80, 2.66) 1.40 (0.77, 2.57) 
  13–40 years 16 2.38 (1.44, 3.92) 2.30 (1.39, 3.81) 
Type of diabetes treatment*    
 No diabetes 452 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetes    
  Insulin treatment 13 2.79 (1.61, 4.85) 2.66 (1.52, 4.64) 
  Oral agents 13 1.82 (1.05, 3.16) 1.80 (1.03, 3.16) 
  No pharmacologic treatment 12 1.21 (0.68, 2.14) 1.17 (0.66, 2.09) 
Never used estrogen    
 Nondiabetic 296 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 26 1.74 (1.17, 2.60) 1.66 (1.10, 2.51) 
Current estrogen use    
 Nondiabetic 31 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 0.98 (0.13, 7.16) 1.17 (0.16, 8.77) 
Former estrogen use    
 Nondiabetic 125 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 11 1.79 (0.97, 3.32) 1.84 (0.98, 3.46) 
Obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)    
 Nondiabetic 82 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 15 1.74 (1.00, 3.02) 1.66 (0.95, 2.90) 
Nonobese women (BMI <30 kg/m2   
 Nondiabetic 370 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 23 1.87 (1.23, 2.85) 1.74 (1.14, 2.67) 
Diabetes statusNumber of fracturesAge-adjusted RR (95% CI)Multivariate-adjusted RR (95% CI)
No diabetes* 452 1.00 1.00 
Type 1 diabetes 14.1 (5.85, 34.2) 12.25 (5.05, 29.7) 
Type 2 diabetes 38 1.75 (1.25, 2.43) 1.70 (1.21, 2.38) 
Duration of diabetes*    
 No diabetes 452 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetes    
  0–4 years 11 1.47 (0.81, 2.67) 1.44 (0.79, 2.63) 
  5–12 years 11 1.46 (0.80, 2.66) 1.40 (0.77, 2.57) 
  13–40 years 16 2.38 (1.44, 3.92) 2.30 (1.39, 3.81) 
Type of diabetes treatment*    
 No diabetes 452 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetes    
  Insulin treatment 13 2.79 (1.61, 4.85) 2.66 (1.52, 4.64) 
  Oral agents 13 1.82 (1.05, 3.16) 1.80 (1.03, 3.16) 
  No pharmacologic treatment 12 1.21 (0.68, 2.14) 1.17 (0.66, 2.09) 
Never used estrogen    
 Nondiabetic 296 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 26 1.74 (1.17, 2.60) 1.66 (1.10, 2.51) 
Current estrogen use    
 Nondiabetic 31 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 0.98 (0.13, 7.16) 1.17 (0.16, 8.77) 
Former estrogen use    
 Nondiabetic 125 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 11 1.79 (0.97, 3.32) 1.84 (0.98, 3.46) 
Obese women (BMI ≥30 kg/m2)    
 Nondiabetic 82 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 15 1.74 (1.00, 3.02) 1.66 (0.95, 2.90) 
Nonobese women (BMI <30 kg/m2   
 Nondiabetic 370 1.00 1.00 
 Type 2 diabetic 23 1.87 (1.23, 2.85) 1.74 (1.14, 2.67) 
*

Adjusted for age, smoking (former, current, never), estrogen use (former, current, never), BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio;

adjusted for age, smoking (former, current, never), BMI, and waist-to-hip ratio;

adjusted for age, smoking (former, current, never), estrogen use (former, current, never), and waist-to-hip ratio.

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