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Table 1—

Characteristics of the study population*

Diabetes (case subjects)Normal glucose metabolism (control subjects)P value
n 519 519  
Age (years) 73.7 ± 2.9 73.5 ± 2.9 0.31 
Female sex 221 (42.6) 221 (42.6)  
Black race 295 (56.8) 295 (56.8)  
Tobacco use    
  Never 213 (41.2) 219 (42.4) 0.07 
  Past 253 (48.9) 226 (43.7)  
  Current smoker 51 (9.9) 72 (13.9)  
Alcohol use    
  None 409 (79.0) 380 (73.6) 0.12 
  Some (1–7 drinks/week) 79 (15.3) 95 (18.4)  
  Heavy (>5/day or 8/week) 30 (5.8) 41 (7.9)  
Physical activity, kcal/week    
  <500 317 (61.1) 267 (51.4) 0.007 
  500–1,500 112 (21.6) 142 (27.4)  
  >1,500 90 (17.3) 110 (21.2)  
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 138.5 ± 21.8 135.6 ± 21.2 0.03 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.2 ± 11.6 72.8 ± 11.7 <0.001 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 8.8 ± 3.1 5.0 ± 0.4 <0.001 
2-h glucose tolerance test (mmol/l) 15.4 ± 4.7 5.8 ± 1.1 <0.001 
Fasting insulin (IU/ml) 9.3 (6.2–14.7) 6.5 (4.7–9.6) <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.1 ± 1.1 5.2 ± 1.0 0.62 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.1 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 0.9 0.29 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.5 <0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.5 (1.1–2.2) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) <0.001 
Diabetes (case subjects)Normal glucose metabolism (control subjects)P value
n 519 519  
Age (years) 73.7 ± 2.9 73.5 ± 2.9 0.31 
Female sex 221 (42.6) 221 (42.6)  
Black race 295 (56.8) 295 (56.8)  
Tobacco use    
  Never 213 (41.2) 219 (42.4) 0.07 
  Past 253 (48.9) 226 (43.7)  
  Current smoker 51 (9.9) 72 (13.9)  
Alcohol use    
  None 409 (79.0) 380 (73.6) 0.12 
  Some (1–7 drinks/week) 79 (15.3) 95 (18.4)  
  Heavy (>5/day or 8/week) 30 (5.8) 41 (7.9)  
Physical activity, kcal/week    
  <500 317 (61.1) 267 (51.4) 0.007 
  500–1,500 112 (21.6) 142 (27.4)  
  >1,500 90 (17.3) 110 (21.2)  
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 138.5 ± 21.8 135.6 ± 21.2 0.03 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70.2 ± 11.6 72.8 ± 11.7 <0.001 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 8.8 ± 3.1 5.0 ± 0.4 <0.001 
2-h glucose tolerance test (mmol/l) 15.4 ± 4.7 5.8 ± 1.1 <0.001 
Fasting insulin (IU/ml) 9.3 (6.2–14.7) 6.5 (4.7–9.6) <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.1 ± 1.1 5.2 ± 1.0 0.62 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.1 ± 0.9 3.1 ± 0.9 0.29 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.3 ± 0.4 1.4 ± 0.5 <0.001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.5 (1.1–2.2) 1.2 (0.9–1.5) <0.001 

Data are n (%) or means ± SD.

*

Case subjects are defined by fasting glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l or use of a diabetes medication; control subjects had fasting glucose <6.1 mmol/l and 2-h postchallenge glucose <7.8 mmol/l and were matched to cases by sex, race, and study site;

median (25–75%);

missing data on 238 (45.6%) case subjects and 15 (2.9%) control subjects.

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