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Table 1—

Study sample characteristics (n = 1,694)

Variable
Demographic  
    Female sex 796 (47.0) 
    Age (years) 62.6 ± 12.8 
A1c 7.5 ± 1.5 
Duration of diabetes 12.0 ± 12.7 
Comorbid chronic disease  
    CHD 407 (24.0) 
    Hypertension 1,111 (65.6) 
    Lipids 1,052 (62.1) 
    Depression 413 (24.4) 
Socioeconomic  
    Low income 325 (19.2) 
    Low education 115 (6.8) 
Enrollment  
    Years enrolled 2.6 ± 0.4 
    Pharmacy coverage 1,326 (78.3) 
Health care costs  
    3-year costs 23,948 ± 31,003 
    3-year costs (25th percentile) 7,577 
    3-year costs (50th percentile) 14,535 
    3-year costs (75th percentile) 30,033 
Variable
Demographic  
    Female sex 796 (47.0) 
    Age (years) 62.6 ± 12.8 
A1c 7.5 ± 1.5 
Duration of diabetes 12.0 ± 12.7 
Comorbid chronic disease  
    CHD 407 (24.0) 
    Hypertension 1,111 (65.6) 
    Lipids 1,052 (62.1) 
    Depression 413 (24.4) 
Socioeconomic  
    Low income 325 (19.2) 
    Low education 115 (6.8) 
Enrollment  
    Years enrolled 2.6 ± 0.4 
    Pharmacy coverage 1,326 (78.3) 
Health care costs  
    3-year costs 23,948 ± 31,003 
    3-year costs (25th percentile) 7,577 
    3-year costs (50th percentile) 14,535 
    3-year costs (75th percentile) 30,033 

Data are mean, means ± SD, or n (%).

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