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Table 1—

Diabetic nephropathy stages: cutoff values of urine albumin for diagnosis and main clinical characteristics

StagesAlbuminuria cutoff values (ref. 14)Clinical characteristics (ref. no.)
Microalbuminuria 20–199 μg/min Abnormal nocturnal decrease of blood pressure and increased blood pressure levels (163) 
 30–299 mg/24 h Increased triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol, and saturated fatty acids (164, 165) 
 30–299 mg/g* Increased frequency of metabolic syndrome components (166) 
  Endothelial dysfunction (167) 
  Association with diabetic retinopathy, amputation, and cardiovascular disease (168) 
  Increased cardiovascular mortality (2, 169) 
  Stable GFR (82) 
Macroalbuminuria ≥200 μg/min Hypertension (99) 
 ≥300 mg/24 h Increased triglycerides and total and LDL cholesterol (170) 
 >300 mg/g* Asymptomatic myocardial ischemia (171, 172) 
  Progressive GFR decline (83, 84) 
StagesAlbuminuria cutoff values (ref. 14)Clinical characteristics (ref. no.)
Microalbuminuria 20–199 μg/min Abnormal nocturnal decrease of blood pressure and increased blood pressure levels (163) 
 30–299 mg/24 h Increased triglycerides, total and LDL cholesterol, and saturated fatty acids (164, 165) 
 30–299 mg/g* Increased frequency of metabolic syndrome components (166) 
  Endothelial dysfunction (167) 
  Association with diabetic retinopathy, amputation, and cardiovascular disease (168) 
  Increased cardiovascular mortality (2, 169) 
  Stable GFR (82) 
Macroalbuminuria ≥200 μg/min Hypertension (99) 
 ≥300 mg/24 h Increased triglycerides and total and LDL cholesterol (170) 
 >300 mg/g* Asymptomatic myocardial ischemia (171, 172) 
  Progressive GFR decline (83, 84) 
*

Spot urine sample.

Measurement of total proteinuria (≥500 mg/24 h or ≥430 mg/l in a spot urine sample) can also be used to define this stage.

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