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Table 1—

Social, demographic, and health status characteristics of diabetic patients with and without chronic pain

With chronic painWithout chronic painP value
n 557 371  
Age (years) 64 ± 10 66 ± 10 0.0001 
    <60 39 (216) 26 (98) 0.0001 
    60–70 30 (168) 34 (125) 0.26 
    >70 31 (173) 40 (148) 0.006 
Male 96 (537/557) 99 (368/371) 0.008 
White 67 (358/538) 71 (257/362) 0.16 
Education, high school or greater 83 (444/538) 81 (292/361) 0.53 
Annual household income, ≥$20,000 53 (275/522) 57 (196/345) 0.23 
Use insulin 44 (245/556) 36 (132/368) 0.01 
No. of comorbid conditions (range 0–13)* 1.3 ± 1.3 (516) 1.3 ± 1.3 (346) 0.73 
    0 34 (174) 33 (114) 0.81 
    1 29 (149) 28 (96) 0.72 
    ≥2 37 (193) 39 (136) 0.57 
Health status, fair or poor 55 (299/543) 33 (122/368) 0.0001 
CES-D 10 score ≥10 49 (267/547) 20 (72/362) 0.0001 
BMI (kg/m231.5 ± 6.4 29.5 ± 5.5 0.0001 
Taking care of diabetes not a high priority right now (agree vs. neutral or disagree) 20 (108/547) 21 (77/369) 0.68 
Amount of pain  NA  
    None to moderate 68 (374/548)   
    Severe or very severe 32 (174/458)   
Use pain medication 78 (428/552) NA  
With chronic painWithout chronic painP value
n 557 371  
Age (years) 64 ± 10 66 ± 10 0.0001 
    <60 39 (216) 26 (98) 0.0001 
    60–70 30 (168) 34 (125) 0.26 
    >70 31 (173) 40 (148) 0.006 
Male 96 (537/557) 99 (368/371) 0.008 
White 67 (358/538) 71 (257/362) 0.16 
Education, high school or greater 83 (444/538) 81 (292/361) 0.53 
Annual household income, ≥$20,000 53 (275/522) 57 (196/345) 0.23 
Use insulin 44 (245/556) 36 (132/368) 0.01 
No. of comorbid conditions (range 0–13)* 1.3 ± 1.3 (516) 1.3 ± 1.3 (346) 0.73 
    0 34 (174) 33 (114) 0.81 
    1 29 (149) 28 (96) 0.72 
    ≥2 37 (193) 39 (136) 0.57 
Health status, fair or poor 55 (299/543) 33 (122/368) 0.0001 
CES-D 10 score ≥10 49 (267/547) 20 (72/362) 0.0001 
BMI (kg/m231.5 ± 6.4 29.5 ± 5.5 0.0001 
Taking care of diabetes not a high priority right now (agree vs. neutral or disagree) 20 (108/547) 21 (77/369) 0.68 
Amount of pain  NA  
    None to moderate 68 (374/548)   
    Severe or very severe 32 (174/458)   
Use pain medication 78 (428/552) NA  

Data are means ± SD or % (n). NA, not applicable.

*

Number of comorbid conditions based on medical record data and includes 13 conditions: congestive heart failure, dementia, chronic pulmonary disease, connective tissue disease, ulcer disease, hemiplegia, leukemia, lymphoma, liver disease, cancer, renal disease, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, and cardiovascular disease (excluding hypertension or dyslipidemia) (21).

A score ≥10 is considered probable depression (i.e., positive screen).

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