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Table 3—

Linear and logistic regression results of the effect of pain severity on diabetes self-management*

Self-management
Difficulty taking diabetes medicationDifficulty with exerciseDifficulty following eating planDifficulty with foot careDifficulty with monitoring
β-Coefficient (95% CI)P
Pain severe or very severe −5.2 (−8.3 to −2.1) 0.003 2.0 (1.2–3.4) 2.5 (1.3–5.0) 1.2 (0.90–1.7) 1.8 (0.88–3.7) 1.1 (0.63–1.9) 
CES-D 10 score ≥10 −7.0 (−9.5 to −4.5) 0.000 3.3 (1.5–7.3) 1.5 (0.75–2.8) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) 2.8 (1.4–5.6) 1.5 (1.0–2.1) 
Health fair or poor −2.8 (−5.1 to −0.49) 0.021 1.0 (0.39–2.8) 1.5 (0.86–2.5) 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 0.72 (0.34–1.5) 1.4 (0.99–1.9) 
1 comorbid condition vs. none 1.7 (−0.62 to 4.1) 0.140 0.57 (0.17–1.9) 1.3 (0.93–1.9) 0.93 (0.56–1.5) 1.0 (0.42–2.6) 0.80 (0.38–1.7) 
≥ 2 comorbid conditions vs. none 0.89 (−0.62 to 4.1) 0.470 1.3 (0.77–2.0) 1.9 (1.2–3.1) 0.71 (0.41–1.2) 1.2 (0.47–3.0) 0.82 (0.42–1.6) 
Diabetes not priority −5.0 (−9.4 to −0.67) 0.026 2.3 (1.2–4.5) 1.3 (0.76–2.2) 2.6 (1.4–5.1) 1.3 (0.55–3.2) 1.3 (0.81–2.2) 
Take pain medication 5.9 (2.3–9.5) 0.003 0.38 (0.13–1.1) 0.91 (0.65–1.3) 0.44 (0.28–0.68) 0.56 (0.33–0.95) 0.83 (0.43–1.6) 
Self-management
Difficulty taking diabetes medicationDifficulty with exerciseDifficulty following eating planDifficulty with foot careDifficulty with monitoring
β-Coefficient (95% CI)P
Pain severe or very severe −5.2 (−8.3 to −2.1) 0.003 2.0 (1.2–3.4) 2.5 (1.3–5.0) 1.2 (0.90–1.7) 1.8 (0.88–3.7) 1.1 (0.63–1.9) 
CES-D 10 score ≥10 −7.0 (−9.5 to −4.5) 0.000 3.3 (1.5–7.3) 1.5 (0.75–2.8) 1.6 (1.2–2.2) 2.8 (1.4–5.6) 1.5 (1.0–2.1) 
Health fair or poor −2.8 (−5.1 to −0.49) 0.021 1.0 (0.39–2.8) 1.5 (0.86–2.5) 1.3 (1.0–1.6) 0.72 (0.34–1.5) 1.4 (0.99–1.9) 
1 comorbid condition vs. none 1.7 (−0.62 to 4.1) 0.140 0.57 (0.17–1.9) 1.3 (0.93–1.9) 0.93 (0.56–1.5) 1.0 (0.42–2.6) 0.80 (0.38–1.7) 
≥ 2 comorbid conditions vs. none 0.89 (−0.62 to 4.1) 0.470 1.3 (0.77–2.0) 1.9 (1.2–3.1) 0.71 (0.41–1.2) 1.2 (0.47–3.0) 0.82 (0.42–1.6) 
Diabetes not priority −5.0 (−9.4 to −0.67) 0.026 2.3 (1.2–4.5) 1.3 (0.76–2.2) 2.6 (1.4–5.1) 1.3 (0.55–3.2) 1.3 (0.81–2.2) 
Take pain medication 5.9 (2.3–9.5) 0.003 0.38 (0.13–1.1) 0.91 (0.65–1.3) 0.44 (0.28–0.68) 0.56 (0.33–0.95) 0.83 (0.43–1.6) 

Data are adjusted OR (95% CI) unless otherwise stated.

*

All models were adjusted for the variables listed as well as for annual household income, education, insulin use, age, sex, race, BMI, and for clustering by site.

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