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Table 2—

Comparison of characteristics of individuals with diabetes by depression status

Major depressive disorder (n = 176, N = 989,599)
No depressive disorder (n = 1,634, N = 9,457,448)
P value
%SE%SE
Race/ethnicity     0.1418 
 White 68 4.0 68 1.0  
 Black 13 2.5 17 1.0  
 Hispanic/other 20 3.3 15 1.0  
Age (years)      
 18–34 10 3.2 0.8 <0.0001 
 35–49 32 4.3 16 1.1  
 50–64 38 4.3 35 1.4  
 ≥65 20 3.3 42 1.4  
Women 63 4.4 51 1.4 0.009 
<High school education 28 3.6 30 1.3 0.7139 
Poverty ratio (% of federal poverty level)     0.003 
 <124% 35 4.5 19 1.3  
 124–199% 18 3.4 16 1.1  
 200–399% 31 4.8 35 1.4  
 ≥400% 16 3.5 30 1.5  
Employed 42 4.3 44 1.3 0.6803 
Married 52 4.5 62 1.4 0.0205 
Health status     <0.0001 
 Better 22 3.8 21 1.1  
 Worse 41 4.5 16 1.0  
 Same 38 4.4 65 1.4  
Obesity status (kg/m2    0.3821 
 BMI <18.5 47 4.7 42 1.4  
 BMI 18.5–24.9 29 4.1 35 1.3  
 BMI 25.0–29.9 22 4.2 21 1.2  
 BMI ≥30.0 1.0 0.3  
Years since diagnosis     0.0443 
 <5 37 4.4 27 1.5  
 5–9 16 3.8 25 1.4  
 ≥10 47 4.6 49 1.6  
Insulin or oral agents (versus diet alone) 80 3.7 64 1.0 0.3845 
Major complications—yes 51 4.6 39 1.5 0.0165 
Smoker 32 4.4 15 1.0 0.0007 
Visited a primary care physician 88 2.9 84 1.0 0.3157 
Visited a psychiatrist or mental health professional 29 4.2 0.6 <0.0001 
Visited an emergency room 41 4.4 26 1.3 <0.0001 
Major depressive disorder (n = 176, N = 989,599)
No depressive disorder (n = 1,634, N = 9,457,448)
P value
%SE%SE
Race/ethnicity     0.1418 
 White 68 4.0 68 1.0  
 Black 13 2.5 17 1.0  
 Hispanic/other 20 3.3 15 1.0  
Age (years)      
 18–34 10 3.2 0.8 <0.0001 
 35–49 32 4.3 16 1.1  
 50–64 38 4.3 35 1.4  
 ≥65 20 3.3 42 1.4  
Women 63 4.4 51 1.4 0.009 
<High school education 28 3.6 30 1.3 0.7139 
Poverty ratio (% of federal poverty level)     0.003 
 <124% 35 4.5 19 1.3  
 124–199% 18 3.4 16 1.1  
 200–399% 31 4.8 35 1.4  
 ≥400% 16 3.5 30 1.5  
Employed 42 4.3 44 1.3 0.6803 
Married 52 4.5 62 1.4 0.0205 
Health status     <0.0001 
 Better 22 3.8 21 1.1  
 Worse 41 4.5 16 1.0  
 Same 38 4.4 65 1.4  
Obesity status (kg/m2    0.3821 
 BMI <18.5 47 4.7 42 1.4  
 BMI 18.5–24.9 29 4.1 35 1.3  
 BMI 25.0–29.9 22 4.2 21 1.2  
 BMI ≥30.0 1.0 0.3  
Years since diagnosis     0.0443 
 <5 37 4.4 27 1.5  
 5–9 16 3.8 25 1.4  
 ≥10 47 4.6 49 1.6  
Insulin or oral agents (versus diet alone) 80 3.7 64 1.0 0.3845 
Major complications—yes 51 4.6 39 1.5 0.0165 
Smoker 32 4.4 15 1.0 0.0007 
Visited a primary care physician 88 2.9 84 1.0 0.3157 
Visited a psychiatrist or mental health professional 29 4.2 0.6 <0.0001 
Visited an emergency room 41 4.4 26 1.3 <0.0001 

Data are % (percentage of weighted sample) and SE. n = unweighted sample size; N = weighted sample.

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