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Table 4—

Independent factors associated with major depressive disorder in individuals with diabetes

Adjusted odds ratio95% CI
Race/ethnicity   
 White (reference)   
 Black 0.7 0.3, 1.3 
 Hispanic/other 1.7 0.9, 3.2 
Age (years)   
 18–34 3.3 1.2, 8.8* 
 35–49 5.0 2.4, 9.9* 
 50–64 2.8 1.4, 5.5* 
 ≥65 (reference)   
Sex   
 Women 1.7 1.1, 2.8* 
 Men (reference)   
Education   
 <High school 0.5 0.3, 0.9* 
 ≥High school (reference)   
Poverty ratio (% of federal poverty level)   
 <124% 2.7 1.1, 6.7* 
 124–199% 2.3 0.9, 5.2 
 200–399% 1.5 0.7, 3.1 
 ≥400% (reference)   
Employment   
 Employed 0.8 0.4, 1.5 
 Not employed (reference)   
Marital status   
 Married 0.8 0.5, 1.3 
 Not married (reference)   
Health status   
 Better 1.6 0.8, 3.1 
 Worse 5.9 3.2, 10.9* 
 Same (reference)   
Obesity status (kg/m2  
 BMI <18.5 0.5 0.1, 4.0 
 BMI 18.5–24.9 0.5 0.1, 4.0 
 BMI 25.0–29.9 0.6 0.1, 4.2 
 BMI ≥30.0 (reference)   
Smoking status   
 Smoker 1.9 1.1, 3.4* 
 Nonsmoker (reference)   
Years since diagnosis   
 <5 1.3 0.7, 2.4 
 5–9 0.9 0.4, 1.7 
 ≥10 (reference)   
Medication use   
 Diet alone 0.9 0.5, 1.7 
 Insulin or oral agents (reference)   
Major complications   
 Yes 1.5 0.9, 2.5 
 No (reference)   
Adjusted odds ratio95% CI
Race/ethnicity   
 White (reference)   
 Black 0.7 0.3, 1.3 
 Hispanic/other 1.7 0.9, 3.2 
Age (years)   
 18–34 3.3 1.2, 8.8* 
 35–49 5.0 2.4, 9.9* 
 50–64 2.8 1.4, 5.5* 
 ≥65 (reference)   
Sex   
 Women 1.7 1.1, 2.8* 
 Men (reference)   
Education   
 <High school 0.5 0.3, 0.9* 
 ≥High school (reference)   
Poverty ratio (% of federal poverty level)   
 <124% 2.7 1.1, 6.7* 
 124–199% 2.3 0.9, 5.2 
 200–399% 1.5 0.7, 3.1 
 ≥400% (reference)   
Employment   
 Employed 0.8 0.4, 1.5 
 Not employed (reference)   
Marital status   
 Married 0.8 0.5, 1.3 
 Not married (reference)   
Health status   
 Better 1.6 0.8, 3.1 
 Worse 5.9 3.2, 10.9* 
 Same (reference)   
Obesity status (kg/m2  
 BMI <18.5 0.5 0.1, 4.0 
 BMI 18.5–24.9 0.5 0.1, 4.0 
 BMI 25.0–29.9 0.6 0.1, 4.2 
 BMI ≥30.0 (reference)   
Smoking status   
 Smoker 1.9 1.1, 3.4* 
 Nonsmoker (reference)   
Years since diagnosis   
 <5 1.3 0.7, 2.4 
 5–9 0.9 0.4, 1.7 
 ≥10 (reference)   
Medication use   
 Diet alone 0.9 0.5, 1.7 
 Insulin or oral agents (reference)   
Major complications   
 Yes 1.5 0.9, 2.5 
 No (reference)   
*

Statistically significant at P < 0.05. Dependent variable: major depressive disorder—yes vs. no. Independent variables: age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, employment, marital status, health status, BMI, smoking, duration of diabetes, presence or absence of major complications, and type of treatment for diabetes.

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