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Table 1—

Results of tests of memory function during euglycemia and hypoglycemia in 16 adults with type 1 diabetes

Memory systemSubtestEuglycemiaHypoglycemiaP valueη2
Immediate verbal memory      
 Immediate Logical Memory Test 26.8 ± 4.8 21.3 ± 6.9 0.008 0.41 
 Immediate AVLT 39.4 ± 7.7 34.0 ± 5.1 0.002 0.49 
Immediate visual memory      
 Benton Visual Retention Test 6.5 ± 1.7 4.7 ± 1.5 0.007 0.42 
 Visual Reproduction Test 81.3 ± 7.2 78.2 ± 9.5 0.093 0.19 
Delayed memory      
 Delayed Logical Memory Test 13.6 ± 2.1 6.1 ± 3.7 <0.0001 0.83 
  Percent retained 78.4 ± 6.0 47.0 ± 21.3 <0.0001 0.73 
 Delayed AVLT 9.1 ± 1.9 5.3 ± 1.9 <0.0001 0.68 
  Percent retained 79.1 ± 6.9 47.8 ± 16.0 <0.0001 0.78 
 Delayed Visual Reproduction 15.9 ± 8.7 7.1 ± 7.3 0.002 0.52 
  Percent retained 18.6 ± 9.8 9.1 ± 9.0 0.004 0.46 
Working memory      
 Validation Span Test 20.7 ± 2.3 14.9 ± 2.2 <0.0001 0.92 
 Modified Digit Span Forward Test 9.56 ± 2.4 8.6 ± 1.4 0.06 0.23 
 Modified Digit Span Backward Test 8.3 ± 1.9 7.2 ± 1.2 0.02 0.33 
 Letter/Number Sequencing Test 11.8 ± 1.9 9.7 ± 1.6 0.0001 0.57 
Memory systemSubtestEuglycemiaHypoglycemiaP valueη2
Immediate verbal memory      
 Immediate Logical Memory Test 26.8 ± 4.8 21.3 ± 6.9 0.008 0.41 
 Immediate AVLT 39.4 ± 7.7 34.0 ± 5.1 0.002 0.49 
Immediate visual memory      
 Benton Visual Retention Test 6.5 ± 1.7 4.7 ± 1.5 0.007 0.42 
 Visual Reproduction Test 81.3 ± 7.2 78.2 ± 9.5 0.093 0.19 
Delayed memory      
 Delayed Logical Memory Test 13.6 ± 2.1 6.1 ± 3.7 <0.0001 0.83 
  Percent retained 78.4 ± 6.0 47.0 ± 21.3 <0.0001 0.73 
 Delayed AVLT 9.1 ± 1.9 5.3 ± 1.9 <0.0001 0.68 
  Percent retained 79.1 ± 6.9 47.8 ± 16.0 <0.0001 0.78 
 Delayed Visual Reproduction 15.9 ± 8.7 7.1 ± 7.3 0.002 0.52 
  Percent retained 18.6 ± 9.8 9.1 ± 9.0 0.004 0.46 
Working memory      
 Validation Span Test 20.7 ± 2.3 14.9 ± 2.2 <0.0001 0.92 
 Modified Digit Span Forward Test 9.56 ± 2.4 8.6 ± 1.4 0.06 0.23 
 Modified Digit Span Backward Test 8.3 ± 1.9 7.2 ± 1.2 0.02 0.33 
 Letter/Number Sequencing Test 11.8 ± 1.9 9.7 ± 1.6 0.0001 0.57 

Data are means ± SD.

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