Skip to Main Content
Table 1—

Biochemical and clinical variables at baseline and year 5 in patients followed by group care (n = 42) and in control subjects (n = 42).

Baseline5 yearsIncrease/decreaseP*
Knowledge of diabetes (GISED score)     
    Group care 15.5 ± 7.9 27.9 ± 5.7 12.4 (9.7 to 15.2) <0.001 
    Control subjects 21.4 ± 7.2 18.0 ± 8.5 −3.4 (−1.1 to −5.7)  
Problem solving ability (CdR score)     
    Group care 11.4 ± 2.6 17.1 ± 2.4 5.7 (4.6 to 6.8) <0.001 
    Control subjects 12.3 ± 4.2 10 ± 3.8 −2.3 (−1.1 to −3.4)  
Quality of life (DQOL/Mod score)     
    Group care 67.4 ± 19.0 43.7 ± 7.2 −23.7 (−30.0 to −17.3) <0.001 
    Control subjects 70.0 ± 21.4 89.2 ± 30.1 19.2 (8.4 to 29.9)  
Body weight (kg)     
    Group care 79.6 ± 13.7 76.1 ± 12.9 −3.5 (−5.2 to −1.8) 0.015 
    Control subjects 77.5 ± 16.0 77.3 ± 16 −0.24 (−1.9 to 1.5)  
BMI (kg/m2    
    Group care 30.0 ± 4.7 28.6 ± 4.1 −1.4 (−2.0 to −0.7) 0.067 
    Control subjects 27.7 ± 4.6 27.6 ± 4.4 −0.10 (−0.7 to 0.5)  
Fasting blood glucose     
    Group care     
        mmol/l 9.8 ± 2.6 9.4 ± 2.3 −0.4 (−1.52 to 0.70) NS 
        mg/dl 177 ± 49 170 ± 42 −7.3 (−27.4 to 12.7)  
    Control subjects     
        mmol/l 9.9 ± 3.2 10.2 ± 2.9 0.3 (−0.99 to 1.51)  
        mg/dl 179 ± 57 184 ± 52 4.7 (−17.9 to 27.3)  
HbA1c (percentage of total Hb) [3.9–5.1]     
    Group care 7.4 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.0 −0.1 (−0.5 to 0.4) <0.001 
    Control subjects 7.4 ± 1.4 9.0 ± 1.6 1.7 (1.1 to 2.2)  
Creatinine     
    Group care     
        μmol/l [44.2–114.9] 91.94 ± 14.14 75.14 ± 25.63 −16.79 (−25.63 to −10.60) NS 
        mg/dl [0.5–1.3] 1.04 ± 0.16 0.85 ± 0.29 −0.19 (−0.29 to −0.12)  
    Control subjects     
        μmol/l [44.2–114.9] 91.05 ± 14.14 78.67 ± 47.73 −12.37 (−26.52 to 2.65)  
        mg/dl [0.5–1.3] 1.03 ± 0.17 0.89 ± 0.54 −0.14 (−0.3 to 0.03)  
Total cholesterol     
    Group care     
        mmol/l [2.59–6.21] 5.84 ± 1.11 5.50 ± 1.06 −0.32 (−0.68 to 0.03) NS 
        mg/dl [100–240] 225 ± 42 213 ± 41 −12.6 (−26.3 to 1.0)  
    Control subjects     
        mmol/l [2.59–6.21] 5.46 ± 0.93 5.27 ± 1.13 −0.43 (−0.54 to 0.10)  
        mg/dl [100–240] 212 ± 35 204 ± 44 −8.5 (−21.2 to 4.2)  
HDL cholesterol     
    Group care     
        mmol/l [0.90–1.68] 1.27 ± 0.31 1.39 ± 0.33 0.14 (0.07 to 0.22) NS 
        mg/dl [35–65] 49 ± 12 54 ± 13 5.7 (2.7 to 8.7)  
    Control subjects     
        mmol/l [0.90–1.68] 1.32 ± 0.31 1.42 ± 0.31 0.10 (−0.02 to 0.23)  
        mg/dl [35–65] 51 ± 12 55 ± 12 3.9 (−0.9 to 8.8)  
Triglyceride     
    Group care     
        mmol/l [0.56–1.98] 2.54 (0.66–11.49) 2.17 ± 2.30 −0.48 (−1.15 to 0.20) NS 
        mg/dl [50–175] 235 ± 205 193 ± 204 −42.3 (−102.0 to 17.9)  
    Control subjects     
        mmol/l [0.56–1.98] 1.81 (0.51–5.22) 1.52 ± 0.75 −0.28 (−0.60 to 0.03)  
        mg/dl [50–175] 160 ± 88 135 ± 67 −25.5 (−53.9 to 2.9)  
Baseline5 yearsIncrease/decreaseP*
Knowledge of diabetes (GISED score)     
    Group care 15.5 ± 7.9 27.9 ± 5.7 12.4 (9.7 to 15.2) <0.001 
    Control subjects 21.4 ± 7.2 18.0 ± 8.5 −3.4 (−1.1 to −5.7)  
Problem solving ability (CdR score)     
    Group care 11.4 ± 2.6 17.1 ± 2.4 5.7 (4.6 to 6.8) <0.001 
    Control subjects 12.3 ± 4.2 10 ± 3.8 −2.3 (−1.1 to −3.4)  
Quality of life (DQOL/Mod score)     
    Group care 67.4 ± 19.0 43.7 ± 7.2 −23.7 (−30.0 to −17.3) <0.001 
    Control subjects 70.0 ± 21.4 89.2 ± 30.1 19.2 (8.4 to 29.9)  
Body weight (kg)     
    Group care 79.6 ± 13.7 76.1 ± 12.9 −3.5 (−5.2 to −1.8) 0.015 
    Control subjects 77.5 ± 16.0 77.3 ± 16 −0.24 (−1.9 to 1.5)  
BMI (kg/m2    
    Group care 30.0 ± 4.7 28.6 ± 4.1 −1.4 (−2.0 to −0.7) 0.067 
    Control subjects 27.7 ± 4.6 27.6 ± 4.4 −0.10 (−0.7 to 0.5)  
Fasting blood glucose     
    Group care     
        mmol/l 9.8 ± 2.6 9.4 ± 2.3 −0.4 (−1.52 to 0.70) NS 
        mg/dl 177 ± 49 170 ± 42 −7.3 (−27.4 to 12.7)  
    Control subjects     
        mmol/l 9.9 ± 3.2 10.2 ± 2.9 0.3 (−0.99 to 1.51)  
        mg/dl 179 ± 57 184 ± 52 4.7 (−17.9 to 27.3)  
HbA1c (percentage of total Hb) [3.9–5.1]     
    Group care 7.4 ± 1.4 7.3 ± 1.0 −0.1 (−0.5 to 0.4) <0.001 
    Control subjects 7.4 ± 1.4 9.0 ± 1.6 1.7 (1.1 to 2.2)  
Creatinine     
    Group care     
        μmol/l [44.2–114.9] 91.94 ± 14.14 75.14 ± 25.63 −16.79 (−25.63 to −10.60) NS 
        mg/dl [0.5–1.3] 1.04 ± 0.16 0.85 ± 0.29 −0.19 (−0.29 to −0.12)  
    Control subjects     
        μmol/l [44.2–114.9] 91.05 ± 14.14 78.67 ± 47.73 −12.37 (−26.52 to 2.65)  
        mg/dl [0.5–1.3] 1.03 ± 0.17 0.89 ± 0.54 −0.14 (−0.3 to 0.03)  
Total cholesterol     
    Group care     
        mmol/l [2.59–6.21] 5.84 ± 1.11 5.50 ± 1.06 −0.32 (−0.68 to 0.03) NS 
        mg/dl [100–240] 225 ± 42 213 ± 41 −12.6 (−26.3 to 1.0)  
    Control subjects     
        mmol/l [2.59–6.21] 5.46 ± 0.93 5.27 ± 1.13 −0.43 (−0.54 to 0.10)  
        mg/dl [100–240] 212 ± 35 204 ± 44 −8.5 (−21.2 to 4.2)  
HDL cholesterol     
    Group care     
        mmol/l [0.90–1.68] 1.27 ± 0.31 1.39 ± 0.33 0.14 (0.07 to 0.22) NS 
        mg/dl [35–65] 49 ± 12 54 ± 13 5.7 (2.7 to 8.7)  
    Control subjects     
        mmol/l [0.90–1.68] 1.32 ± 0.31 1.42 ± 0.31 0.10 (−0.02 to 0.23)  
        mg/dl [35–65] 51 ± 12 55 ± 12 3.9 (−0.9 to 8.8)  
Triglyceride     
    Group care     
        mmol/l [0.56–1.98] 2.54 (0.66–11.49) 2.17 ± 2.30 −0.48 (−1.15 to 0.20) NS 
        mg/dl [50–175] 235 ± 205 193 ± 204 −42.3 (−102.0 to 17.9)  
    Control subjects     
        mmol/l [0.56–1.98] 1.81 (0.51–5.22) 1.52 ± 0.75 −0.28 (−0.60 to 0.03)  
        mg/dl [50–175] 160 ± 88 135 ± 67 −25.5 (−53.9 to 2.9)  

Data are means ± SD or means (95% CI); values in square brackets refer to the normal reference ranges in the laboratory.

*

Difference between group care and control subjects.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal