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Table 2—

Results for patients with different intact proinsulin secretion status

Elevated intact proinsulin (>10 pmol/l)Normal intact proinsulin (<10 pmol/l)Insulin resistant + normal intact proinsulinInsulin sensitive + normal intact proinsulin
n 17 31 18 13 
Age (years) 58 ± 10 60 ± 8 60 ± 9 60 ± 6 
Disease duration (months) 60 ± 45 63 ± 46 65 ± 54 61 ± 34 
Body weight (kg) 99 ± 18 88 ± 17* 90 ± 19 85 ± 13* 
BMI (kg/m233.2 ± 5.2 30.1 ± 4.3* 30.5 ± 4.9 29.5 ± 3.3* 
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 1.3 6.5 ± 1.0 6.8 ± 1.1 6.2 ± 0.6 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 127 ± 32 107 ± 29* 112 ± 33 102 ± 22* 
Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 15.8 ± 5.6 10.1 ± 5.6 10.6 ± 6.6* 9.4 ± 3.9 
Fasting intact proinsulin (pmol/l) 23.7 ± 11.3 6.3 ± 2.2 6.6 ± 1.9 6.0 ± 2.6 
Proinsulin/insulin ratio (pmol/mU) 1.58 ± 0.64 0.79 ± 0.50 0.86 ± 0.58 0.71 ± 0.35 
Resistin (ng/l) 0.07 ± 0.13 0.08 ± 0.15 0.07 ± 0.12 0.11 ± 0.18 
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 6.46 ± 3.94 8.49 ± 5.24 9.70 ± 5.66 7.61 ± 4.86 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 197 ± 123 161 ± 83 151 ± 59 176 ± 110 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 208 ± 37 201 ± 48 194 ± 39 212 ± 59 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 44 ± 7 47 ± 10 47 ± 9 47 ± 10 
Fibrinogen (mg/dl) 3.0 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 0.7 
Hip/waist circumference ratio 1.03 ± 0.07 1.03 ± 0.07 1.04 ± 0.07 1.02 ± 0.06 
Hypertension 14 (82%) 24 (77%) 14 (78%) 10 (77%) 
Complications     
 Macrovascular 4 (24%) 6 (19%) 5 (28%) 1 (8%) 
 Microvascular 6 (35%) 6 (19%) 3 (17%) 3 (23%) 
Therapy     
 No drug 4 (24%) 6 (19%) 4 (22%) 2 (15%) 
 Sulfonylurea 12 (71%) 11 (35%) 6 (33%) 5 (38%) 
 Metformine 8 (47%) 17 (55%) 9 (50%) 8 (62%) 
Elevated intact proinsulin (>10 pmol/l)Normal intact proinsulin (<10 pmol/l)Insulin resistant + normal intact proinsulinInsulin sensitive + normal intact proinsulin
n 17 31 18 13 
Age (years) 58 ± 10 60 ± 8 60 ± 9 60 ± 6 
Disease duration (months) 60 ± 45 63 ± 46 65 ± 54 61 ± 34 
Body weight (kg) 99 ± 18 88 ± 17* 90 ± 19 85 ± 13* 
BMI (kg/m233.2 ± 5.2 30.1 ± 4.3* 30.5 ± 4.9 29.5 ± 3.3* 
HbA1c (%) 7.5 ± 1.3 6.5 ± 1.0 6.8 ± 1.1 6.2 ± 0.6 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 127 ± 32 107 ± 29* 112 ± 33 102 ± 22* 
Fasting insulin (μU/ml) 15.8 ± 5.6 10.1 ± 5.6 10.6 ± 6.6* 9.4 ± 3.9 
Fasting intact proinsulin (pmol/l) 23.7 ± 11.3 6.3 ± 2.2 6.6 ± 1.9 6.0 ± 2.6 
Proinsulin/insulin ratio (pmol/mU) 1.58 ± 0.64 0.79 ± 0.50 0.86 ± 0.58 0.71 ± 0.35 
Resistin (ng/l) 0.07 ± 0.13 0.08 ± 0.15 0.07 ± 0.12 0.11 ± 0.18 
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 6.46 ± 3.94 8.49 ± 5.24 9.70 ± 5.66 7.61 ± 4.86 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 197 ± 123 161 ± 83 151 ± 59 176 ± 110 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 208 ± 37 201 ± 48 194 ± 39 212 ± 59 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 44 ± 7 47 ± 10 47 ± 9 47 ± 10 
Fibrinogen (mg/dl) 3.0 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 0.7 2.7 ± 0.8 2.6 ± 0.7 
Hip/waist circumference ratio 1.03 ± 0.07 1.03 ± 0.07 1.04 ± 0.07 1.02 ± 0.06 
Hypertension 14 (82%) 24 (77%) 14 (78%) 10 (77%) 
Complications     
 Macrovascular 4 (24%) 6 (19%) 5 (28%) 1 (8%) 
 Microvascular 6 (35%) 6 (19%) 3 (17%) 3 (23%) 
Therapy     
 No drug 4 (24%) 6 (19%) 4 (22%) 2 (15%) 
 Sulfonylurea 12 (71%) 11 (35%) 6 (33%) 5 (38%) 
 Metformine 8 (47%) 17 (55%) 9 (50%) 8 (62%) 

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

*

P < 0.05,

P < 0.001, and

P < 0.001 vs. elevated proinsulin group.

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