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Table 1—

Characteristics of case subjects (diabetic children with CD diagnosed using endomysial antibodies) and matched control subjects (diabetic children without CD)

Case subjectsControl subjects
n 130 245 
    The Czech Republic (Prague) 34 69 
    Austria (Vienna) 23 46 
    Slovenia (Ljubljana) 21 29 
    Hungary (Pecs and Budapest) 25 48 
    Germany (Berlin and Hannover) 18 35 
    Portugal (Lisbon)     5     9 
    Slovakia (Kosice)     4     9 
M:F ratio (n72:58 134:111 
Ethnicity (n  
    European Caucasian 128 243 
    Other (Asian) 
Age at type 1 diabetes onset [median     (interquartile range)] 4.6 (2.8–8.2) 4.6 (2.2–7.7) 
Type 1 diabetes duration at study     [median (interquartile range)] 7.3 (4.3–11) 6.9 (3.9–11) 
Results of small bowel biopsy in case     subjects   
    Results available 114 (88%)  
Total or subtotal atrophy 97  
Increased intraepithelial     lymphocytes 13  
Normal  
    Results not available 16 (12%)  
Biopsy not performed–typical     symptoms present  
Biopsy refused by parents  
Unsuccessful biopsy  
Biopsy not indicated by     physician  
Case subjectsControl subjects
n 130 245 
    The Czech Republic (Prague) 34 69 
    Austria (Vienna) 23 46 
    Slovenia (Ljubljana) 21 29 
    Hungary (Pecs and Budapest) 25 48 
    Germany (Berlin and Hannover) 18 35 
    Portugal (Lisbon)     5     9 
    Slovakia (Kosice)     4     9 
M:F ratio (n72:58 134:111 
Ethnicity (n  
    European Caucasian 128 243 
    Other (Asian) 
Age at type 1 diabetes onset [median     (interquartile range)] 4.6 (2.8–8.2) 4.6 (2.2–7.7) 
Type 1 diabetes duration at study     [median (interquartile range)] 7.3 (4.3–11) 6.9 (3.9–11) 
Results of small bowel biopsy in case     subjects   
    Results available 114 (88%)  
Total or subtotal atrophy 97  
Increased intraepithelial     lymphocytes 13  
Normal  
    Results not available 16 (12%)  
Biopsy not performed–typical     symptoms present  
Biopsy refused by parents  
Unsuccessful biopsy  
Biopsy not indicated by     physician  
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