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Table 2—

Univariate analysis of genetic factors tested for association with CD in children with diabetes

Case subjects (%)Control subjects (%)OR (95%CI)P
n 130 245   
HLA-DQB1*02-DQA1*05     
    Dominant model* 77 53 2.97 (1.78–4.97) <0.001 
    Codominant model     
        Two doses of DQB1*02-DQA1*05 17 5.94 (2.54–14) <0.001 
        Single dose of DQB1*02-DQA1*05 60 46 2.53 (1.48–4.34) 0.001 
        No DQB1*02-DQA1*05 23 47 1.0: reference  
HLA-DQB1*0302-DQA1*03 52 65 0.58 (0.36–0.93) 0.024 
Cytokines and related molecules     
    IL-1α −889 T/C     
        T 38 49 0.64 (0.42–0.98) 0.041 
        C 94 90 1.69 (0.72–3.93) 0.23 
    IL-1β     
        −511 C 88 91 0.84 (0.42–1.69) 0.64 
        −511 T 59 56 1.12 (0.72–1.74) 0.61 
        +3962 C 98 97 1.84 (0.47–7.2) 0.38 
        +3962 T 41 45 0.82 (0.54–1.26) 0.37 
    IL-1R 1970 C/T     
        C 88 87 1.15 (0.58–2.30) 0.69 
        T 59 55 1.18 (0.76–1.87) 0.46 
    IL-1RA 11100 T/C     
        T 89 93 0.59 (0.27–1.31) 0.20 
        C 53 59 0.81 (0.52–1.26) 0.36 
    IFN-γ UTR 5644 A/T     
        A 84 82 1.19 (0.68–2.10) 0.54 
        T 72 72 1.00 (0.61–1.63) 1.0 
    TGF-β1     
        Codon 10 C 68 60 1.35 (0.87–2.11) 0.12 
        Codon 10 T 81 84 0.77 (0.43–1.37) 0.37 
        Codon 25 G 100 99  0.99 
        Codon 25 C 12 15 0.75 (0.38–1.46) 0.40 
    TNF-α     
        −308 G 90 93 0.59 (0.26–1.36) 0.22 
        −308 A 68 45 2.7 (1.7–4.31) <0.001 
        −238 G 100 100  0.99 
        −238 A 10 0.44 (0.18–1.1) 0.080 
    IL-2     
        −330 T 95 95 1.01 (0.34–2.7) 0.98 
        −330 G 52 47 1.22 (0.78–1.91) 0.38 
        +160 G 85 83 1.36 (0.74–2.48) 0.32 
        +160 T 54 63 0.67 (0.43–1.03) 0.068 
    IL-6     
        −174 G 79 82 0.84 (0.5–1.44) 0.54 
        −174 C 71 70 1.2 (0.73–1.99) 0.46 
        nt565 G 82 86 0.76 (0.44–1.33) 0.34 
        nt565 A 67 68 1.05 (0.65–1.71) 0.83 
    IL-10 haplotype     
        ACC 59 50 1.52 (0.98–2.34) 0.064 
        ATA 47 51 0.77 (0.49–1.19) 0.24 
        GCC 61 64 0.98 (0.68–1.52) 0.94 
CTLA4     
    +49A 86 80 1.44 (0.81–2.57) 0.21 
    +49G 59 64 0.9 (0.59–1.38) 0.64 
Case subjects (%)Control subjects (%)OR (95%CI)P
n 130 245   
HLA-DQB1*02-DQA1*05     
    Dominant model* 77 53 2.97 (1.78–4.97) <0.001 
    Codominant model     
        Two doses of DQB1*02-DQA1*05 17 5.94 (2.54–14) <0.001 
        Single dose of DQB1*02-DQA1*05 60 46 2.53 (1.48–4.34) 0.001 
        No DQB1*02-DQA1*05 23 47 1.0: reference  
HLA-DQB1*0302-DQA1*03 52 65 0.58 (0.36–0.93) 0.024 
Cytokines and related molecules     
    IL-1α −889 T/C     
        T 38 49 0.64 (0.42–0.98) 0.041 
        C 94 90 1.69 (0.72–3.93) 0.23 
    IL-1β     
        −511 C 88 91 0.84 (0.42–1.69) 0.64 
        −511 T 59 56 1.12 (0.72–1.74) 0.61 
        +3962 C 98 97 1.84 (0.47–7.2) 0.38 
        +3962 T 41 45 0.82 (0.54–1.26) 0.37 
    IL-1R 1970 C/T     
        C 88 87 1.15 (0.58–2.30) 0.69 
        T 59 55 1.18 (0.76–1.87) 0.46 
    IL-1RA 11100 T/C     
        T 89 93 0.59 (0.27–1.31) 0.20 
        C 53 59 0.81 (0.52–1.26) 0.36 
    IFN-γ UTR 5644 A/T     
        A 84 82 1.19 (0.68–2.10) 0.54 
        T 72 72 1.00 (0.61–1.63) 1.0 
    TGF-β1     
        Codon 10 C 68 60 1.35 (0.87–2.11) 0.12 
        Codon 10 T 81 84 0.77 (0.43–1.37) 0.37 
        Codon 25 G 100 99  0.99 
        Codon 25 C 12 15 0.75 (0.38–1.46) 0.40 
    TNF-α     
        −308 G 90 93 0.59 (0.26–1.36) 0.22 
        −308 A 68 45 2.7 (1.7–4.31) <0.001 
        −238 G 100 100  0.99 
        −238 A 10 0.44 (0.18–1.1) 0.080 
    IL-2     
        −330 T 95 95 1.01 (0.34–2.7) 0.98 
        −330 G 52 47 1.22 (0.78–1.91) 0.38 
        +160 G 85 83 1.36 (0.74–2.48) 0.32 
        +160 T 54 63 0.67 (0.43–1.03) 0.068 
    IL-6     
        −174 G 79 82 0.84 (0.5–1.44) 0.54 
        −174 C 71 70 1.2 (0.73–1.99) 0.46 
        nt565 G 82 86 0.76 (0.44–1.33) 0.34 
        nt565 A 67 68 1.05 (0.65–1.71) 0.83 
    IL-10 haplotype     
        ACC 59 50 1.52 (0.98–2.34) 0.064 
        ATA 47 51 0.77 (0.49–1.19) 0.24 
        GCC 61 64 0.98 (0.68–1.52) 0.94 
CTLA4     
    +49A 86 80 1.44 (0.81–2.57) 0.21 
    +49G 59 64 0.9 (0.59–1.38) 0.64 

The ORs come from conditional logistic regression models where the outcome variable was the presence of CD in the diabetic child (i.e., whether the individual is a case = 1 versus a control = 0). The conditioning variable was the identifier of the matched set (matching stratum). The model was adjusted for the matching variables of age at diabetes onset and duration of diabetes. The presented P values are not corrected for multiple testing.

*

In the dominant model, the predictor variable was 1 when any DQB1*02-DQA1*05 was present (irrespective of dose) and 0 when no DQB1*02-DQA1*05 was present.

In the codominant model, two indicator variables compare the levels of risk associated with the double dose and the single dose of HLA-DQB1*02-DQA1*05, relative to its absence.

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