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TABLE 1

Physical and metabolic characteristics of the study populations in the cross-sectional, prospective, and longitudinal analyses

Baseline population
Prospective analysis
Longitudinal analysis
Means ± SDRange (min–max)Non-progressorsProgressorsBaselineFollow-up
n 451  307 63 224 224 
Age (years) 30 ± 6 18–47 26 ± 6 27 ± 6 26 ± 6 30 ± 6 
Body weight (kg) 98 ± 26 50–257 91 ± 23 99 ± 22* 92 ± 23 98 ± 26 
Body fat (%) 33 ± 8 9–53 30 ± 9 35 ± 7 31 ± 9 31 ± 11 
WTR 1.68 ± 0.18 1.06–2.58 1.61 ± 0.16 1.65 ± 0.18 1.61 ± 0.15 1.67 ± 0.16 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.9 ± 0.6 2.8–7.1 4.8 ± 0.5 5.2 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.6 
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l) 7.1 ± 1.8 3.1–10.9 5.9 ± 1.1 6.6 ± 0.8 5.9 ± 1.1 6.6 ± 1.6 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 254 ± 115 67–677 210 ± 102 250 ± 102 210 ± 96 234 ± 114 
M-low (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−12.57 ± 0.88 1.41–6.54 3.00 ± 1.27 2.39 ± 0.75 2.98 ± 1.33 2.72 ± 0.98 
M-high (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−18.6 ± 2.1 2.4–13.7 9.4 ± 2.05 8.6 ± 1.9 9.4 ± 2.0 8.9 ± 2.2 
AIR (pmol/l) 1,416 ± 933 43–7,164 1,569 ± 1,042 1,307 ± 751* 1,638 ± 1,026 1,542 ± 1,104 
Basal endogenous glucose output (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−11.95 ± 0.24 1.32–2.59 1.90 ± 0.24 1.91 ± 0.27 1.90 ± 0.24 1.97 ± 0.24 
HGO (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−10.42 ± 0.39 0–1.93 0.29 ± 0.34 0.40 ± 0.36* 0.32 ± 0.36 0.43 ± 0.40 
ALT (units/l) 45 ± 29 5–144 36 ± 25 39 ± 29 35 ± 26 41 ± 30 
AST (units/l) 34 ± 18 11–103 32 ± 15 33 ± 15 32 ± 16 32 ± 19 
GGT (units/l) 56 ± 39 8–245 49 ± 35 54.1 ± 38 44 ± 27 50 ± 31 
ALKP (units/l) 111 ± 42 50–279 95 ± 42 101 ± 59 90 ± 45 109.1 ± 43 
Bilirubin (μmol/l) 11 ± 5 2–34 12 ± 9 11 ± 4 7 ± 6 6 ± 3 
Fasting plasma albumin (g/l) 40 ± 4 28–51 41 ± 4 39 ± 4 41 ± 4 40 ± 4 
Baseline population
Prospective analysis
Longitudinal analysis
Means ± SDRange (min–max)Non-progressorsProgressorsBaselineFollow-up
n 451  307 63 224 224 
Age (years) 30 ± 6 18–47 26 ± 6 27 ± 6 26 ± 6 30 ± 6 
Body weight (kg) 98 ± 26 50–257 91 ± 23 99 ± 22* 92 ± 23 98 ± 26 
Body fat (%) 33 ± 8 9–53 30 ± 9 35 ± 7 31 ± 9 31 ± 11 
WTR 1.68 ± 0.18 1.06–2.58 1.61 ± 0.16 1.65 ± 0.18 1.61 ± 0.15 1.67 ± 0.16 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 4.9 ± 0.6 2.8–7.1 4.8 ± 0.5 5.2 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.5 4.9 ± 0.6 
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l) 7.1 ± 1.8 3.1–10.9 5.9 ± 1.1 6.6 ± 0.8 5.9 ± 1.1 6.6 ± 1.6 
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l) 254 ± 115 67–677 210 ± 102 250 ± 102 210 ± 96 234 ± 114 
M-low (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−12.57 ± 0.88 1.41–6.54 3.00 ± 1.27 2.39 ± 0.75 2.98 ± 1.33 2.72 ± 0.98 
M-high (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−18.6 ± 2.1 2.4–13.7 9.4 ± 2.05 8.6 ± 1.9 9.4 ± 2.0 8.9 ± 2.2 
AIR (pmol/l) 1,416 ± 933 43–7,164 1,569 ± 1,042 1,307 ± 751* 1,638 ± 1,026 1,542 ± 1,104 
Basal endogenous glucose output (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−11.95 ± 0.24 1.32–2.59 1.90 ± 0.24 1.91 ± 0.27 1.90 ± 0.24 1.97 ± 0.24 
HGO (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−10.42 ± 0.39 0–1.93 0.29 ± 0.34 0.40 ± 0.36* 0.32 ± 0.36 0.43 ± 0.40 
ALT (units/l) 45 ± 29 5–144 36 ± 25 39 ± 29 35 ± 26 41 ± 30 
AST (units/l) 34 ± 18 11–103 32 ± 15 33 ± 15 32 ± 16 32 ± 19 
GGT (units/l) 56 ± 39 8–245 49 ± 35 54.1 ± 38 44 ± 27 50 ± 31 
ALKP (units/l) 111 ± 42 50–279 95 ± 42 101 ± 59 90 ± 45 109.1 ± 43 
Bilirubin (μmol/l) 11 ± 5 2–34 12 ± 9 11 ± 4 7 ± 6 6 ± 3 
Fasting plasma albumin (g/l) 40 ± 4 28–51 41 ± 4 39 ± 4 41 ± 4 40 ± 4 

Symbols indicate significant differences between progressors and nonprogressors in the prospective analysis (unpaired t test) and between baseline and follow-up variables (except for age) in the longitudinal analysis (paired t test).

*

P = 0.05;

P < 0.001;

P < 0.01. ALKP, alkaline phosphatase; EMBS, estimated metabolic body size = fat free mass + 17.7 kg.

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