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Table 2—

Association of IMT and AI with diabetic retinopathy after individually adjusting for different risk variables

VariableDiabetic retinopathy and IMT
Diabetic retinopathy and AI
Odds ratio (95% CI)POdds ratio (95% CI)P
Age 2.659 (1.087–6.50) 0.032 1.019 (0.996–1.042) 0.105 
Sex 3.390 (1.435–8.006) 0.005 1.030 (1.007–1.054) 0.010 
BMI 2.851 (1.209–6.725) 0.017 1.016 (0.994–1.039) 0.160 
Waist circumference 3.308 (1.412–7.746) 0.006 1.018 (0.998–1.041) 0.116 
Duration of diabetes 2.383 (1.099–5.169) 0.028 1.019 (0.995–1.044) 0.121 
Fasting plasma glucose 3.461 (1.421–8.432) 0.006 1.028 (1.004–1.052) 0.021 
HbA1c 3.463 (1.419–8.449) 0.006 1.025 (1.001–1.049) 0.037 
Serum cholesterol 3.159 (1.336–7.470) 0.009 1.026 (1.003–1.049) 0.024 
Serum triglycerides 3.642 (1.536–8.636) 0.003 1.027 (1.005–1.050) 0.018 
Microalbuminuria 3.17 (1.35–7.4) 0.008 1.03 (1.004–1.057) 0.019 
Proteinuria 3.207 (1.368–7.520) 0.007 1.026 (1.003–1.043) 0.027 
Creatinine 2.928 (1.228–6.980) 0.015 1.024 (1.001–1.046) 0.039 
CAD 3.031 (1.312–7.001) 0.009 1.021 (0.999–1.044) 0.066 
VariableDiabetic retinopathy and IMT
Diabetic retinopathy and AI
Odds ratio (95% CI)POdds ratio (95% CI)P
Age 2.659 (1.087–6.50) 0.032 1.019 (0.996–1.042) 0.105 
Sex 3.390 (1.435–8.006) 0.005 1.030 (1.007–1.054) 0.010 
BMI 2.851 (1.209–6.725) 0.017 1.016 (0.994–1.039) 0.160 
Waist circumference 3.308 (1.412–7.746) 0.006 1.018 (0.998–1.041) 0.116 
Duration of diabetes 2.383 (1.099–5.169) 0.028 1.019 (0.995–1.044) 0.121 
Fasting plasma glucose 3.461 (1.421–8.432) 0.006 1.028 (1.004–1.052) 0.021 
HbA1c 3.463 (1.419–8.449) 0.006 1.025 (1.001–1.049) 0.037 
Serum cholesterol 3.159 (1.336–7.470) 0.009 1.026 (1.003–1.049) 0.024 
Serum triglycerides 3.642 (1.536–8.636) 0.003 1.027 (1.005–1.050) 0.018 
Microalbuminuria 3.17 (1.35–7.4) 0.008 1.03 (1.004–1.057) 0.019 
Proteinuria 3.207 (1.368–7.520) 0.007 1.026 (1.003–1.043) 0.027 
Creatinine 2.928 (1.228–6.980) 0.015 1.024 (1.001–1.046) 0.039 
CAD 3.031 (1.312–7.001) 0.009 1.021 (0.999–1.044) 0.066 

Logistic regression analysis was done using diabetic retinopathy as the dependent variable and either IMT or AI as the independent variable. The odds ratios were determined after individually adjusting for the variables shown in the first column.

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