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Table 2—

Baseline characteristics of American Indians with diabetes without a history of LEA by LEA status at follow-up: the SHS

CharacteristicIncident LEANo LEADifference in means or crude relative risk (95% CI)*P
n 87 1,887 — — 
Age (years) 56.2 57.1 −0.9 (−2.6 to 0.8) 0.31 
Sex [n (% male)] 43 (49) 669 (35) 1.7 (1.2–2.6) <0.01 
Center     
    North/South Dakota 17 (20) 497 (26) 1.0 — 
    Oklahoma 14 (16) 546 (29) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.43 
    Arizona 56 (64) 844 (45) 1.9 (1.1–3.2) 0.02 
Duration of diabetes (years) 14.8 11.7 3.1 (1.1–5.1) <0.01 
Undiagnosed diabetes 2 (2) 478 (25) — NA 
HbA1c (%) 9.8 8.4 1.5 (0.9–2.0) <0.01 
Hypertension§ 42 (48) 851 (45) 1.1 (0.8–1.7) 0.56 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 138 131 7.1 (2.7–11.5) <0.01 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 77 1.2 (−1.0 to 3.3) 0.29 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 184 190 −5.8 (−15.6 to 3.9) 0.24 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 174 178 −3.9 (−46.2 to 38.4) 0.81 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 43 43 −0.2 (−2.7 to 2.3) 0.88 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 106 111 −4.7 (−12.1 to 2.6) 0.21 
Fibrinogen (mg/dl) (ln) 5.8 5.7 0.1 (−0.01 to 0.11) 0.09 
BMI (kg/m229.8 32.3 −2.5 (−1.1 to −3.9) <0.01 
Ever smoker 59 (69) 1,264 (67) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.78 
High school education or higher 24 (28) 905 (48) 0.43 (0.27–0.68) <0.01 
At-risk drinking 23 (26) 396 (21) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.22 
Albuminuria     
    Normal 13 (16) 958 (53) 1.0 — 
    Microalbuminuria 44 (54) 545 (30) 5.6 (3.0–10.3) <0.01 
    Macroalbuminuria 25 (30) 319 (17) 5.4 (2.8–10.5) <0.01 
Peripheral arterial disease     
    ABI (low) 8 (9) 112 (6) 1.8 (0.9–3.8) 0.09 
    ABI ≥0.9 to ≤1.4 (normal) 58 (67) 1,542 (83) 1.0 — 
    ABI >1.4 (high) 20 (23) 210 (11) 2.4 (1.5–3.9) <0.01 
CharacteristicIncident LEANo LEADifference in means or crude relative risk (95% CI)*P
n 87 1,887 — — 
Age (years) 56.2 57.1 −0.9 (−2.6 to 0.8) 0.31 
Sex [n (% male)] 43 (49) 669 (35) 1.7 (1.2–2.6) <0.01 
Center     
    North/South Dakota 17 (20) 497 (26) 1.0 — 
    Oklahoma 14 (16) 546 (29) 0.8 (0.4–1.5) 0.43 
    Arizona 56 (64) 844 (45) 1.9 (1.1–3.2) 0.02 
Duration of diabetes (years) 14.8 11.7 3.1 (1.1–5.1) <0.01 
Undiagnosed diabetes 2 (2) 478 (25) — NA 
HbA1c (%) 9.8 8.4 1.5 (0.9–2.0) <0.01 
Hypertension§ 42 (48) 851 (45) 1.1 (0.8–1.7) 0.56 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 138 131 7.1 (2.7–11.5) <0.01 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 78 77 1.2 (−1.0 to 3.3) 0.29 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 184 190 −5.8 (−15.6 to 3.9) 0.24 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 174 178 −3.9 (−46.2 to 38.4) 0.81 
HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 43 43 −0.2 (−2.7 to 2.3) 0.88 
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 106 111 −4.7 (−12.1 to 2.6) 0.21 
Fibrinogen (mg/dl) (ln) 5.8 5.7 0.1 (−0.01 to 0.11) 0.09 
BMI (kg/m229.8 32.3 −2.5 (−1.1 to −3.9) <0.01 
Ever smoker 59 (69) 1,264 (67) 1.1 (0.7–1.7) 0.78 
High school education or higher 24 (28) 905 (48) 0.43 (0.27–0.68) <0.01 
At-risk drinking 23 (26) 396 (21) 1.3 (0.8–2.1) 0.22 
Albuminuria     
    Normal 13 (16) 958 (53) 1.0 — 
    Microalbuminuria 44 (54) 545 (30) 5.6 (3.0–10.3) <0.01 
    Macroalbuminuria 25 (30) 319 (17) 5.4 (2.8–10.5) <0.01 
Peripheral arterial disease     
    ABI (low) 8 (9) 112 (6) 1.8 (0.9–3.8) 0.09 
    ABI ≥0.9 to ≤1.4 (normal) 58 (67) 1,542 (83) 1.0 — 
    ABI >1.4 (high) 20 (23) 210 (11) 2.4 (1.5–3.9) <0.01 

Data are n (%), unless noted otherwise. N = 1,974.

*

Data represent differences in mean baseline values (95% CI) for continuous variables between participants with and without incident LEA or relative risks (95% CI) for categorical variables, both over 7.9 years of follow-up;

data were available for 126 participants with diabetes and LEA and for 1,423 participants with reported diabetes and no LEA;

no reported diabetes and fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dl;

§

systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg or taking antihypertensive medication;

report of ≥5 drinks on one occasion or ≥14 drinks in a single week.

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