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TABLE 2

Characteristics of offspring by age-group

Age-group
5–9 years10–14 years15–19 years20–24 years
Offspring of nondiabetic pregnancies (gestational glucose <11.0 mmol/l [<200 mg/dl])     
    Variable     
        n 631 998 684 330 
        Age (years) 7.5 ± 1.4 12.0 ± 1.3 16.8 ± 1.3 21.7 ± 1.3 
        Height (cm) 127.3 ± 10.7 154.3 ± 9.2 166.3 ± 8.3 166.3 ± 9.3 
        Weight (kg) 32.4 ± 12.0 62.1 ± 20.2 85.2 ± 23.3 95.8 ± 24.7 
        BMI (kg/m219.5 ± 4.6 25.6 ± 6.6 31.0 ± 8.8 35.2 ± 10.3 
        % obese 34.5 52.7 55.4 69.4 
        Waist (cm) 62.4 ± 13.1 82.3 ± 15.8 95.6 ± 17.6 105.7 ± 19.0 
        Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 4.7 ± 0.3 5.0 ± 0.8 5.1 ± 1.6 5.5 ± 2.1 
        2-h glucose (mmol/l) 5.3 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 1.9 5.8 ± 1.8 6.2 ± 2.7 
        A1C (%) 4.9 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 1.1 5.5 ± 1.5 
Offspring of diabetic pregnancies (2-h glucose prior to pregnancy ≥11.1 mmol/l [≥200 mg/dl])     
    Variable     
        n 96 52 84 47 
        Age (years) 7.7 ± 1.4 11.9 ± 1.2 16.7 ± 1.3 21.5 ± 1.2 
        Height (cm) 128.8 ± 10.7 154.6 ± 9.0 165.3 ± 8.3 164.7 ± 8.1 
        Weight (kg) 38.6 ± 13.8 71.0 ± 18.6 94.3 ± 26.6 94.9 ± 25.6 
        BMI (kg/m222.6 ± 5.1 29.7 ± 5.8 34.3 ± 8.2 34.8 ± 8.1 
        % obese 60.4 81.6 77.2 63.8 
        Waist (cm) 73.6 ± 12.4 94.6 ± 12.6 110.4 ± 54.0 109.0 ± 20.0 
        Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 4.9 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 1.5 5.8 ± 2.4 7.1 ± 3.7 
        2-h glucose (mmol/l) 5.8 ± 1.4 7.4 ± 3.6 8.4 ± 5.4 10.1 ± 7.0 
        A1C (%) 5.0 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.9 5.3 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 1.6 
Age-group
5–9 years10–14 years15–19 years20–24 years
Offspring of nondiabetic pregnancies (gestational glucose <11.0 mmol/l [<200 mg/dl])     
    Variable     
        n 631 998 684 330 
        Age (years) 7.5 ± 1.4 12.0 ± 1.3 16.8 ± 1.3 21.7 ± 1.3 
        Height (cm) 127.3 ± 10.7 154.3 ± 9.2 166.3 ± 8.3 166.3 ± 9.3 
        Weight (kg) 32.4 ± 12.0 62.1 ± 20.2 85.2 ± 23.3 95.8 ± 24.7 
        BMI (kg/m219.5 ± 4.6 25.6 ± 6.6 31.0 ± 8.8 35.2 ± 10.3 
        % obese 34.5 52.7 55.4 69.4 
        Waist (cm) 62.4 ± 13.1 82.3 ± 15.8 95.6 ± 17.6 105.7 ± 19.0 
        Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 4.7 ± 0.3 5.0 ± 0.8 5.1 ± 1.6 5.5 ± 2.1 
        2-h glucose (mmol/l) 5.3 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 1.9 5.8 ± 1.8 6.2 ± 2.7 
        A1C (%) 4.9 ± 0.4 5.2 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 1.1 5.5 ± 1.5 
Offspring of diabetic pregnancies (2-h glucose prior to pregnancy ≥11.1 mmol/l [≥200 mg/dl])     
    Variable     
        n 96 52 84 47 
        Age (years) 7.7 ± 1.4 11.9 ± 1.2 16.7 ± 1.3 21.5 ± 1.2 
        Height (cm) 128.8 ± 10.7 154.6 ± 9.0 165.3 ± 8.3 164.7 ± 8.1 
        Weight (kg) 38.6 ± 13.8 71.0 ± 18.6 94.3 ± 26.6 94.9 ± 25.6 
        BMI (kg/m222.6 ± 5.1 29.7 ± 5.8 34.3 ± 8.2 34.8 ± 8.1 
        % obese 60.4 81.6 77.2 63.8 
        Waist (cm) 73.6 ± 12.4 94.6 ± 12.6 110.4 ± 54.0 109.0 ± 20.0 
        Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 4.9 ± 0.3 5.4 ± 1.5 5.8 ± 2.4 7.1 ± 3.7 
        2-h glucose (mmol/l) 5.8 ± 1.4 7.4 ± 3.6 8.4 ± 5.4 10.1 ± 7.0 
        A1C (%) 5.0 ± 0.3 5.5 ± 0.9 5.3 ± 0.5 5.9 ± 1.6 

Data are means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated. Some offspring appear in more than one age stratum. The variable “% obese” represents the proportion of individuals whose BMI is either >95th percentile, based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 U.S. population statistics (36) for age and sex (5–19.9 years) or BMI >30 kg/m2 (20–24.9 years).

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