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TABLE 1

Characteristics of the study cohort

Total populationSubjects without metabolic syndromeSubjects with metabolic syndromeP
n 3,033 1,886 1,147 — 
Age (years) 74 ± 2.9 74 ± 2.9 74 ± 2.8 NS 
Male (%) 48 52 42 <0.0001 
African American (%) 42 42 41 NS 
BMI (kg/m227 ± 4.9 27 ± 4.7 29 ± 4.8 <0.0001 
Waist circumference (cm) 100 ± 13 98 ± 13 102 ± 12 <0.0001 
High blood pressure (%) 39 35 45 <0.0001 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136 ± 21 134 ± 21 139 ± 21 <0.0001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 71 ± 12 71 ± 12 72 ± 11 NS 
Diabetes (%) 19 38 <0.0001 
Glucose intolerance (%)* 24 49 <0.0001 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.83 ± 1.94 5.33 ± 1.28 6.66 ± 2.55 <0.0001 
Fasting insulin (units/ml) 8.55 ± 7.52 7.31 ± 5.99 10.90 ± 9.34 <0.0001 
HbA1c (%) 6.37 ± 1.13 6.12 ± 0.83 6.78 ± 1.40 <0.0001 
Lipid-lowering drugs (%) 15 13 19 <0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.25 ± 1.01 5.22 ± 0.096 5.28 ± 1.06 NS 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.15 ± 0.91 3.15 ± 0.88 3.13 ± 0.93 NS 
Low HDL cholesterol (%) 29 10 62 <0.0001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.40 ± 0.44 1.53 ± 0.44 1.19 ± 0.36 <0.0001 
High triglycerides (%) 30 9.2 66 <0.0001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.56 ± 0.93 1.22 ± 0.48 2.14 ± 1.19 <0.0001 
Triglyceride-to-HDL molar ratio 1.31 ± 1.22 0.88 ± 0.50 2.01 ± 1.65 <0.0001 
Smoking: former/current (%) 46/10 46/11 46/9.1 NS 
Average pack-years among smokers 19 ± 28 19 ± 27 20 ± 21 NS 
OxLDL (mg/dl) 1.32 ± 0.74 1.23 ± 0.67 1.45 ± 0.82 <0.0001 
OxLDL (% of LDL) 1.09 ± 0.53 1.01 ± 0.46 1.21 ± 0.59 <0.0001 
Total populationSubjects without metabolic syndromeSubjects with metabolic syndromeP
n 3,033 1,886 1,147 — 
Age (years) 74 ± 2.9 74 ± 2.9 74 ± 2.8 NS 
Male (%) 48 52 42 <0.0001 
African American (%) 42 42 41 NS 
BMI (kg/m227 ± 4.9 27 ± 4.7 29 ± 4.8 <0.0001 
Waist circumference (cm) 100 ± 13 98 ± 13 102 ± 12 <0.0001 
High blood pressure (%) 39 35 45 <0.0001 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 136 ± 21 134 ± 21 139 ± 21 <0.0001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 71 ± 12 71 ± 12 72 ± 11 NS 
Diabetes (%) 19 38 <0.0001 
Glucose intolerance (%)* 24 49 <0.0001 
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) 5.83 ± 1.94 5.33 ± 1.28 6.66 ± 2.55 <0.0001 
Fasting insulin (units/ml) 8.55 ± 7.52 7.31 ± 5.99 10.90 ± 9.34 <0.0001 
HbA1c (%) 6.37 ± 1.13 6.12 ± 0.83 6.78 ± 1.40 <0.0001 
Lipid-lowering drugs (%) 15 13 19 <0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.25 ± 1.01 5.22 ± 0.096 5.28 ± 1.06 NS 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.15 ± 0.91 3.15 ± 0.88 3.13 ± 0.93 NS 
Low HDL cholesterol (%) 29 10 62 <0.0001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.40 ± 0.44 1.53 ± 0.44 1.19 ± 0.36 <0.0001 
High triglycerides (%) 30 9.2 66 <0.0001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.56 ± 0.93 1.22 ± 0.48 2.14 ± 1.19 <0.0001 
Triglyceride-to-HDL molar ratio 1.31 ± 1.22 0.88 ± 0.50 2.01 ± 1.65 <0.0001 
Smoking: former/current (%) 46/10 46/11 46/9.1 NS 
Average pack-years among smokers 19 ± 28 19 ± 27 20 ± 21 NS 
OxLDL (mg/dl) 1.32 ± 0.74 1.23 ± 0.67 1.45 ± 0.82 <0.0001 
OxLDL (% of LDL) 1.09 ± 0.53 1.01 ± 0.46 1.21 ± 0.59 <0.0001 

Data are means ± SD. Subjects without and with the metabolic syndrome were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis or χ2 test.

*

Glucose intolerance determined according to American Diabetes Association criteria.

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