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Table 2—

RR (95% CI) of type 2 diabetes for alcohol consumption categories for all data, crude and adjusted data, diabetes definition tested and self-reported, men and women, and low and high BMI, with two-sided P values for differences between subgroups

Number of studiesAlcohol consumption categories (g/day)
0 (ref.)<66–1212–2424–48>48
All data 15 0.87 (0.79–0.95) 0.70 (0.61–0.79) 0.69 (0.58–0.81) 0.72 (0.62–0.84) 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 
Crude 10 (w) 0.70 (0.59–0.83) 0.59 (0.40–0.89) 0.50 (0.36–0.69) 0.71 (0.59–0.85) 0.98 (0.78–1.23) 
Adjusted 10 (w) 0.88 (0.80–0.95) 0.73 (0.62–0.86) 0.66 (0.59–0.75) 0.74 (0.63–0.88) 0.93 (0.74–1.18) 
    P   0.04 0.36 0.12 0.75 0.77 
Type 2 diabetes tested 7 (b) 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 0.89 (0.72–1.10) 0.86 (0.64–1.15) 0.76 (0.63–0.93) 1.14 (0.89–1.45) 
Type 2 diabetes self-reported 7 (b) 0.85 (0.75–0.97) 0.65 (0.57–0.73) 0.57 (0.50–0.65) 0.59 (0.49–0.71) 0.88 (0.55–1.39) 
    P   0.51 0.04 0.03 0.10 0.36 
Men 11 (w and b) 0.93 (0.82–1.04) 0.80 (0.71–0.90) 0.75 (0.60–0.95) 0.71 (0.60–0.83) 1.06 (0.86–1.32) 
Women 6 (w and b) 0.81 (0.75–0.88) 0.59 (0.54–0.64) 0.55 (0.47–0.65) 0.78 (0.49–1.23)*  
    P   0.14 0.01 0.21   
BMI lowest strata 6 (w) 0.76 (0.65–0.88) 0.64 (0.44–0.92) 0.73 (0.53–1.01) 0.85 (0.49–1.46) 1.28 (0.37–4.40) 
BMI highest strata 6 (w) 0.85 (0.79–0.92) 0.75 (0.63–0.90) 0.67 (0.57–0.78) 0.71 (0.55–0.91) 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 
    P   0.53 0.45 0.53 0.79 0.65 
Number of studiesAlcohol consumption categories (g/day)
0 (ref.)<66–1212–2424–48>48
All data 15 0.87 (0.79–0.95) 0.70 (0.61–0.79) 0.69 (0.58–0.81) 0.72 (0.62–0.84) 1.04 (0.84–1.29) 
Crude 10 (w) 0.70 (0.59–0.83) 0.59 (0.40–0.89) 0.50 (0.36–0.69) 0.71 (0.59–0.85) 0.98 (0.78–1.23) 
Adjusted 10 (w) 0.88 (0.80–0.95) 0.73 (0.62–0.86) 0.66 (0.59–0.75) 0.74 (0.63–0.88) 0.93 (0.74–1.18) 
    P   0.04 0.36 0.12 0.75 0.77 
Type 2 diabetes tested 7 (b) 0.91 (0.79–1.05) 0.89 (0.72–1.10) 0.86 (0.64–1.15) 0.76 (0.63–0.93) 1.14 (0.89–1.45) 
Type 2 diabetes self-reported 7 (b) 0.85 (0.75–0.97) 0.65 (0.57–0.73) 0.57 (0.50–0.65) 0.59 (0.49–0.71) 0.88 (0.55–1.39) 
    P   0.51 0.04 0.03 0.10 0.36 
Men 11 (w and b) 0.93 (0.82–1.04) 0.80 (0.71–0.90) 0.75 (0.60–0.95) 0.71 (0.60–0.83) 1.06 (0.86–1.32) 
Women 6 (w and b) 0.81 (0.75–0.88) 0.59 (0.54–0.64) 0.55 (0.47–0.65) 0.78 (0.49–1.23)*  
    P   0.14 0.01 0.21   
BMI lowest strata 6 (w) 0.76 (0.65–0.88) 0.64 (0.44–0.92) 0.73 (0.53–1.01) 0.85 (0.49–1.46) 1.28 (0.37–4.40) 
BMI highest strata 6 (w) 0.85 (0.79–0.92) 0.75 (0.63–0.90) 0.67 (0.57–0.78) 0.71 (0.55–0.91) 0.92 (0.73–1.16) 
    P   0.53 0.45 0.53 0.79 0.65 
*

The single observation in women in the >48-g/day category is pooled with the observations in the 24- to 48-g/day category. w, within-study comparison; b, between-study comparison.

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