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Table 1—

Baseline characteristics

NMCKPTAMCJOSTotalP
n 200 179 167 137 683  
Male (%) 44.5 57.5 53.9 54.7 52.3  
Age (years) 62.0 59.3 50.9 50.6 56.3 < 0.001 
Ethnic background (%)*      < 0.001 
    Non-Hispanic white 54.5 68.2 34.1  52.7  
    African American 13.0 9.5 17.4  13.2  
    Hispanic 5.0 11.2 4.8  7.0  
    Asian/Pacific Islander 22.0 5.6 31.7  19.6  
High school graduate (%) 85.6 88.7 92.2  88.7  
Diabetes duration (years) 12.5 15.3 10.5  12.8 < 0.001 
Medication use (%)      < 0.05 
    Insulin 47.5 58.7 44.9  50.4  
    Oral hypoglycemic agents only 42.5 35.8 49.7  42.5  
Diet controlled (%) 10.0 5.6 5.4  7.1  
HbA1c (%) 8.7 7.6 10.4 8.2 8.8 < 0.001 
CESD 15.4 13.9 14.3 20.2 15.7 < 0.001 
DDS (total score) 31.7 36.1 39.3 50.6 38.5 < 0.001 
Self-care       
    Meal planning 67.7 64.4 36.7 — 56.9 < 0.001 
    Exercise 2.6 2.8 3.0 — 2.8  
    SMBG§ 70.7 77.7 69.9 — 72.7  
NMCKPTAMCJOSTotalP
n 200 179 167 137 683  
Male (%) 44.5 57.5 53.9 54.7 52.3  
Age (years) 62.0 59.3 50.9 50.6 56.3 < 0.001 
Ethnic background (%)*      < 0.001 
    Non-Hispanic white 54.5 68.2 34.1  52.7  
    African American 13.0 9.5 17.4  13.2  
    Hispanic 5.0 11.2 4.8  7.0  
    Asian/Pacific Islander 22.0 5.6 31.7  19.6  
High school graduate (%) 85.6 88.7 92.2  88.7  
Diabetes duration (years) 12.5 15.3 10.5  12.8 < 0.001 
Medication use (%)      < 0.05 
    Insulin 47.5 58.7 44.9  50.4  
    Oral hypoglycemic agents only 42.5 35.8 49.7  42.5  
Diet controlled (%) 10.0 5.6 5.4  7.1  
HbA1c (%) 8.7 7.6 10.4 8.2 8.8 < 0.001 
CESD 15.4 13.9 14.3 20.2 15.7 < 0.001 
DDS (total score) 31.7 36.1 39.3 50.6 38.5 < 0.001 
Self-care       
    Meal planning 67.7 64.4 36.7 — 56.9 < 0.001 
    Exercise 2.6 2.8 3.0 — 2.8  
    SMBG§ 70.7 77.7 69.9 — 72.7  
*

Percentages do not sum to 100% because smaller ethnic groups (Hispanics and African Americans) were excluded from these analyses;

those following recommendations “always” or “usually” during the past 7 days;

number of days of exercise (20 min or more) during the past 7 days;

§

those reporting monitoring “every day” or “most days.”

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