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Table 1—

Physical characteristics and fasting metabolic data of the study subjects

Obese control subjectsType 2 diabetic patientsP
n 20 14  
Age (years) 14.6 ± 0.4 15.5 ± 0.5 0.12 
Sex (M/F) 7/13 4/10 1.00 
Ethnicity (African American/white) 16/4 10/4 0.69 
BMI (kg/m237.5 ± 1.3 35.9 ± 1.8 0.47 
Percent body fat 43.5 ± 1.0 41.3 ± 1.5 0.21 
Visceral adipose tissue (cm268.2 ± 6.2 90.6 ± 15.0 0.27 
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (cm2608.7 ± 35.5 521.8 ± 39.2 0.12 
HbA1c (%) 5.4 ± 0.1 6.9 ± 0.3 <0.001 
Glucose (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 0.1 7.5 ± 0.3 <0.001 
Insulin (pmol/l) 220.2 ± 18.0 289.8 ± 24.6 0.007 
C-peptide (nmol/l) 0.87 ± 0.08 1.43 ± 0.17 0.003 
Proinsulin (pmol/l) 36.8 ± 5.1 93.8 ± 13.1 <0.001 
Proinsulin-to-insulin ratio 0.16 ± 0.02 0.34 ± 0.04 0.002 
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 7.5 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 0.3 0.001 
Hepatic glucose production (μmol · kg–1 · min–112.3 ± 0.5 16.5 ± 1.1 0.002 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.07 ± 0.09 1.63 ± 0.24 0.042 
VLDL (mmol/l) 0.21 ± 0.02 0.33 ± 0.05 0.046 
Obese control subjectsType 2 diabetic patientsP
n 20 14  
Age (years) 14.6 ± 0.4 15.5 ± 0.5 0.12 
Sex (M/F) 7/13 4/10 1.00 
Ethnicity (African American/white) 16/4 10/4 0.69 
BMI (kg/m237.5 ± 1.3 35.9 ± 1.8 0.47 
Percent body fat 43.5 ± 1.0 41.3 ± 1.5 0.21 
Visceral adipose tissue (cm268.2 ± 6.2 90.6 ± 15.0 0.27 
Subcutaneous adipose tissue (cm2608.7 ± 35.5 521.8 ± 39.2 0.12 
HbA1c (%) 5.4 ± 0.1 6.9 ± 0.3 <0.001 
Glucose (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 0.1 7.5 ± 0.3 <0.001 
Insulin (pmol/l) 220.2 ± 18.0 289.8 ± 24.6 0.007 
C-peptide (nmol/l) 0.87 ± 0.08 1.43 ± 0.17 0.003 
Proinsulin (pmol/l) 36.8 ± 5.1 93.8 ± 13.1 <0.001 
Proinsulin-to-insulin ratio 0.16 ± 0.02 0.34 ± 0.04 0.002 
Adiponectin (μg/ml) 7.5 ± 1.0 3.6 ± 0.3 0.001 
Hepatic glucose production (μmol · kg–1 · min–112.3 ± 0.5 16.5 ± 1.1 0.002 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.07 ± 0.09 1.63 ± 0.24 0.042 
VLDL (mmol/l) 0.21 ± 0.02 0.33 ± 0.05 0.046 

Data are means ± SEM. Cholesterol, LDL, and HDL values are not statistically different between the two groups (data not shown).

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