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Table 3—

Baseline and follow-up characteristics in initially normoalbuminuric long-duration type 1 diabetic patients who did (progressors) or did not develop abnormal albumin excretion (nonprogressors) during 7-year follow-up

Baseline
Follow-up
Nonprogressors (62)Progressors (24)NonprogressorsProgressors
Age (years) 55 ± 10 60 ± 11   
Men:women 38:24 18:6   
Duration of diabetes (years) 37 ± 7 39 ± 6   
BMI (kg/m225.7 ± 3.5 25.7 ± 2.5 26.4 ± 3.8 26.7 ± 3.6 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 141 ± 20 142 ± 21 145 ± 17 145 ± 20 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75 ± 8 78 ± 9 75 ± 9 75 ± 8 
HbAIc (%) 6.8 ± 1.0 7.0 ± 1.7 8.5 ± 1.0 8.5 ± 1 
Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 85 ± 22 92 ± 24 92 ± 13 100 ± 16* 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 1.5 5.5 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 1.1 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.3–3.1) 1.4 (0.6–3.5) 1.2 (0.5–3.2) 1.6 (0.6–4.1) 
AER at baseline (μg/min) 4.0 (0.4–17.5) 9.0 (3.8–18.0)   
ACR at follow-up (mg/mmol)   0.55 ± 0.76 14.54 ± 35 
History of smoking (%) 37 46   
Preexisting cardiovascular disease 36 38 42 50 
Treatment for hypertension (%) 19 37 45 61 
Lipid-lowering agents (%) 19 39 
Baseline
Follow-up
Nonprogressors (62)Progressors (24)NonprogressorsProgressors
Age (years) 55 ± 10 60 ± 11   
Men:women 38:24 18:6   
Duration of diabetes (years) 37 ± 7 39 ± 6   
BMI (kg/m225.7 ± 3.5 25.7 ± 2.5 26.4 ± 3.8 26.7 ± 3.6 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 141 ± 20 142 ± 21 145 ± 17 145 ± 20 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 75 ± 8 78 ± 9 75 ± 9 75 ± 8 
HbAIc (%) 6.8 ± 1.0 7.0 ± 1.7 8.5 ± 1.0 8.5 ± 1 
Serum creatinine (μmol/l) 85 ± 22 92 ± 24 92 ± 13 100 ± 16* 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 1.0 5.8 ± 1.5 5.5 ± 0.9 5.7 ± 1.1 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.0 (0.3–3.1) 1.4 (0.6–3.5) 1.2 (0.5–3.2) 1.6 (0.6–4.1) 
AER at baseline (μg/min) 4.0 (0.4–17.5) 9.0 (3.8–18.0)   
ACR at follow-up (mg/mmol)   0.55 ± 0.76 14.54 ± 35 
History of smoking (%) 37 46   
Preexisting cardiovascular disease 36 38 42 50 
Treatment for hypertension (%) 19 37 45 61 
Lipid-lowering agents (%) 19 39 

Data are means ± SD or median (range).

*

P = 0.047;

P = 0.027;

P < 0.001. For HbAIc, note that the assays used were enzyme immunoassay (reference range 4.4–5.2%) at baseline and ion exchange liquid chromatography (reference range <6.1%) at follow-up. Student’s t test or χ2 test were used as appropriate. Serum triglycerides and AER were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test.

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