Skip to Main Content
Table 1—

Characteristics of case and control subjects

Case subjects (n = 1,401)Control subjects (n = 5,604)P2 test)
Demographic    
  Age (years) 68.2 ± 10.8 65.6 ± 11.0 0.0001 
  Sex, female 588 (42.0) 2,352 (41.8)  
  Race    
    White 936 (66.8) 3,200 (57.10 0.001 
    Black 128 (9.1) 695 (12.4)  
    Hispanic 91 (6.5) 476 (8.5)  
    Asian 103 (7.4) 629 (11.2)  
    Pacific Island 19 (1.4) 37 (0.7)  
    Native American 6 (0.4) 23 (0.4)  
    Other 5 (0.4) 20 (0.4)  
    Multi-ethnic 69 (4.9) 372 (6.6)  
    Unknown 44 (3.1) 152 (2.7)  
Socioeconomic status    
  Education    
    High school or less 680 (48.5) 2,293 (40.9) 0.001 
    Some college 317 (22.6) 1,444 (25.8)  
    College graduate or higher 258 (18.4) 1,252 (22.3)  
    Unknown 146 (10.4) 615 (11.0)  
Behavior    
  Smoking status    
    Never 547 (39.0) 2,388 (42.6) 0.001 
    Former 528 (37.7) 2,106 (37.6)  
    Current 182 (13.0) 464 (8.8)  
    Unknown 144 (10.3) 616 (11.0)  
  Diabetes treatment - exercise 560 (40.0) 2,815 (50.2) 0.001 
  Diabetes treatment - diet 765 (54.6) 3,377 (60.3) 0.001 
Clinical    
  Type of diabetes    
    Type 1 42 (3.00) 122 (2.18) 0.038 
    Type 2 1,323 (94.4) 5,379 (96.0)  
    Unknown 36 (2.6) 103 (1.8)  
  Age of onset (years) 53.12 ± 14.1 53.26 ± 13.4 0.74 
  Duration of diabetes (years) 14.82 ± 11.3 11.94 ± 10.5 0.0001 
  Family history of diabetes 669 (47.8) 2,424 (43.2) 0.005 
  BMI (kg/m229.29 ± 5.7 29.47 ± 6.1 0.35 
  Peripheral neuropathy 418 (29.8) 1,273 (22.7) 0.001 
  Hypertension 1,310 (93.5) 4,315 (77.0) 0.001 
  Diabetes prescription within 2 years    
    Insulin only 414 (29.6) 1,179 (21.0) 0.001 
    Oral hyperglycemic agent 651 (46.5) 3,047 (54.4)  
    Combination 205 (14.6) 580 (10.4)  
    No treatment 131 (9.4) 798 (14.2)  
    Antilipemics 441 (31.5) 1,074 (19.2) 0.001 
Clinical (laboratory)    
  Albumin (micro/macro) 537 (38.3) 1,342 (24.0) 0.001 
  Serum creatinine level (mg/dl) 1.48 ± 1.4 1.10 ± 0.8 0.0001 
  HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 38.81 ± 11.3 41.45 ± 12.6 0.0001 
  LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 143.65 ± 39.3 135.26 ± 34.8 0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 227.04 ± 51.8 215.78 ± 42.4 0.0001 
Total cholesterol/HDL ratio 6.26 ± 2.2 5.59 ± 1.8 0.0001 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 235.58 ± 198.5 219.70 ± 182.6 0.066 
HbA1c (%) 8.33 ± 1.8 8.29 ± 1.8 0.56 
Case subjects (n = 1,401)Control subjects (n = 5,604)P2 test)
Demographic    
  Age (years) 68.2 ± 10.8 65.6 ± 11.0 0.0001 
  Sex, female 588 (42.0) 2,352 (41.8)  
  Race    
    White 936 (66.8) 3,200 (57.10 0.001 
    Black 128 (9.1) 695 (12.4)  
    Hispanic 91 (6.5) 476 (8.5)  
    Asian 103 (7.4) 629 (11.2)  
    Pacific Island 19 (1.4) 37 (0.7)  
    Native American 6 (0.4) 23 (0.4)  
    Other 5 (0.4) 20 (0.4)  
    Multi-ethnic 69 (4.9) 372 (6.6)  
    Unknown 44 (3.1) 152 (2.7)  
Socioeconomic status    
  Education    
    High school or less 680 (48.5) 2,293 (40.9) 0.001 
    Some college 317 (22.6) 1,444 (25.8)  
    College graduate or higher 258 (18.4) 1,252 (22.3)  
    Unknown 146 (10.4) 615 (11.0)  
Behavior    
  Smoking status    
    Never 547 (39.0) 2,388 (42.6) 0.001 
    Former 528 (37.7) 2,106 (37.6)  
    Current 182 (13.0) 464 (8.8)  
    Unknown 144 (10.3) 616 (11.0)  
  Diabetes treatment - exercise 560 (40.0) 2,815 (50.2) 0.001 
  Diabetes treatment - diet 765 (54.6) 3,377 (60.3) 0.001 
Clinical    
  Type of diabetes    
    Type 1 42 (3.00) 122 (2.18) 0.038 
    Type 2 1,323 (94.4) 5,379 (96.0)  
    Unknown 36 (2.6) 103 (1.8)  
  Age of onset (years) 53.12 ± 14.1 53.26 ± 13.4 0.74 
  Duration of diabetes (years) 14.82 ± 11.3 11.94 ± 10.5 0.0001 
  Family history of diabetes 669 (47.8) 2,424 (43.2) 0.005 
  BMI (kg/m229.29 ± 5.7 29.47 ± 6.1 0.35 
  Peripheral neuropathy 418 (29.8) 1,273 (22.7) 0.001 
  Hypertension 1,310 (93.5) 4,315 (77.0) 0.001 
  Diabetes prescription within 2 years    
    Insulin only 414 (29.6) 1,179 (21.0) 0.001 
    Oral hyperglycemic agent 651 (46.5) 3,047 (54.4)  
    Combination 205 (14.6) 580 (10.4)  
    No treatment 131 (9.4) 798 (14.2)  
    Antilipemics 441 (31.5) 1,074 (19.2) 0.001 
Clinical (laboratory)    
  Albumin (micro/macro) 537 (38.3) 1,342 (24.0) 0.001 
  Serum creatinine level (mg/dl) 1.48 ± 1.4 1.10 ± 0.8 0.0001 
  HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 38.81 ± 11.3 41.45 ± 12.6 0.0001 
  LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 143.65 ± 39.3 135.26 ± 34.8 0.0001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 227.04 ± 51.8 215.78 ± 42.4 0.0001 
Total cholesterol/HDL ratio 6.26 ± 2.2 5.59 ± 1.8 0.0001 
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 235.58 ± 198.5 219.70 ± 182.6 0.066 
HbA1c (%) 8.33 ± 1.8 8.29 ± 1.8 0.56 

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal