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Table 2—

Adjusted OR estimates of MI given antecedent antibiotic use

Case subjects (n)Control subjects (n)Model 1
Model 2
OR*98.33% CIPOR98.33% CIP
6 months prior to index date         
  No antibiotic (reference) 781 3,772       
  Cephalosporin only 126 341 1.72 (1.28–2.31) 0.0001 1.46 (1.05–2.02) 0.0059 
  Erythromycin only 33 136 1.22 (0.74–2.03) 0.35 1.31 (0.75–2.28) 0.24 
  Penicillin only 129 441 1.40 (1.05–1.84) 0.0044 1.31 (0.97–1.79) 0.0340 
  Sulfonamide only 69 237 1.36 (0.94–1.96) 0.0451 1.38 (0.92–2.05) 0.0554 
  Tetracycline only 18 74 1.17 (0.60–2.28) 0.56 1.14 (0.54–2.39) 0.67 
  Quinolones only 33 99 1.72 (1.00–2.95) 0.0162 1.21 (0.67–2.20) 0.44 
  Multiple (two or more) 212 504 1.93 (1.52–2.46) 0.0001 1.29 (0.98–1.69) 0.0254 
12 months prior to index date         
  No antibiotic (reference) 566 2,787       
  Cephalosporin only 142 452 1.55 (1.17–2.05) 0.0002 1.30 (0.95–1.78) 0.0428 
  Erythromycin only 38 195 1.02 (0.64–1.63) 0.91 1.02 (0.62–1.69) 0.93 
  Penicillin only 151 600 1.22 (0.94–1.59) 0.07 1.17 (0.88–1.55) 0.20 
  Sulfonamide only 73 297 1.16 (0.81–1.65) 0.32 1.11 (0.76–1.63) 0.50 
  Tetracycline only 17 100 0.89 (0.46–1.73) 0.67 0.70 (0.34–1.45) 0.24 
  Quinolones only 26 96 1.40 (0.77–2.52) 0.18 1.14 (0.59–2.18) 0.64 
  Multiple (two or more) 388 1,077 1.67 (1.37–2.04) 0.0001 1.20 (0.96–1.50) 0.0560 
24 months prior to index date         
  No antibiotic (reference) 346 1,764       
  Cephalosporin only 100 449 1.18 (0.86–1.63) 0.21 1.02 (0.72–1.45) 0.90 
  Erythromycin only 41 224 0.91 (0.57–1.45) 0.62 0.96 (0.58–1.58) 0.84 
  Penicillin only 151 679 1.16 (0.88–1.53) 0.19 1.16 (0.86–1.57) 0.22 
  Sulfonamide only 65 296 1.19 (0.81–1.73) 0.28 1.04 (0.69–1.55) 0.84 
  Tetracycline only 16 80 1.09 (0.53–2.24) 0.78 1.12 (0.51–2.44) 0.73 
  Quinolones only 25 90 1.60 (0.89–2.89) 0.057 1.28 (0.67–2.42) 0.36 
  Multiple (two or more) 657 2,022 1.67 (1.37–2.02) 0.0001 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 0.0280 
Case subjects (n)Control subjects (n)Model 1
Model 2
OR*98.33% CIPOR98.33% CIP
6 months prior to index date         
  No antibiotic (reference) 781 3,772       
  Cephalosporin only 126 341 1.72 (1.28–2.31) 0.0001 1.46 (1.05–2.02) 0.0059 
  Erythromycin only 33 136 1.22 (0.74–2.03) 0.35 1.31 (0.75–2.28) 0.24 
  Penicillin only 129 441 1.40 (1.05–1.84) 0.0044 1.31 (0.97–1.79) 0.0340 
  Sulfonamide only 69 237 1.36 (0.94–1.96) 0.0451 1.38 (0.92–2.05) 0.0554 
  Tetracycline only 18 74 1.17 (0.60–2.28) 0.56 1.14 (0.54–2.39) 0.67 
  Quinolones only 33 99 1.72 (1.00–2.95) 0.0162 1.21 (0.67–2.20) 0.44 
  Multiple (two or more) 212 504 1.93 (1.52–2.46) 0.0001 1.29 (0.98–1.69) 0.0254 
12 months prior to index date         
  No antibiotic (reference) 566 2,787       
  Cephalosporin only 142 452 1.55 (1.17–2.05) 0.0002 1.30 (0.95–1.78) 0.0428 
  Erythromycin only 38 195 1.02 (0.64–1.63) 0.91 1.02 (0.62–1.69) 0.93 
  Penicillin only 151 600 1.22 (0.94–1.59) 0.07 1.17 (0.88–1.55) 0.20 
  Sulfonamide only 73 297 1.16 (0.81–1.65) 0.32 1.11 (0.76–1.63) 0.50 
  Tetracycline only 17 100 0.89 (0.46–1.73) 0.67 0.70 (0.34–1.45) 0.24 
  Quinolones only 26 96 1.40 (0.77–2.52) 0.18 1.14 (0.59–2.18) 0.64 
  Multiple (two or more) 388 1,077 1.67 (1.37–2.04) 0.0001 1.20 (0.96–1.50) 0.0560 
24 months prior to index date         
  No antibiotic (reference) 346 1,764       
  Cephalosporin only 100 449 1.18 (0.86–1.63) 0.21 1.02 (0.72–1.45) 0.90 
  Erythromycin only 41 224 0.91 (0.57–1.45) 0.62 0.96 (0.58–1.58) 0.84 
  Penicillin only 151 679 1.16 (0.88–1.53) 0.19 1.16 (0.86–1.57) 0.22 
  Sulfonamide only 65 296 1.19 (0.81–1.73) 0.28 1.04 (0.69–1.55) 0.84 
  Tetracycline only 16 80 1.09 (0.53–2.24) 0.78 1.12 (0.51–2.44) 0.73 
  Quinolones only 25 90 1.60 (0.89–2.89) 0.057 1.28 (0.67–2.42) 0.36 
  Multiple (two or more) 657 2,022 1.67 (1.37–2.02) 0.0001 1.22 (0.98–1.52) 0.0280 
*

Model 1 adjusted for age and sex.

Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, race, education, type of diabetes, time since diabetes diagnosis, first-degree family history of diabetes, use of diet and exercise to treat diabetes, diabetes therapy, antilipemics, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy, smoking status, obesity (BMI), urinary albumin excretion, serum creatinine, HDL, HbA1c, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Missing variable indicators were included for variables that were incomplete.

Pr > χ2; use Bonferroni corrected level of significance: 0.05/3 = 0.0167.

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