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Table 1—

Characteristics of the subjects

Whole groupGenetic etiology HNF-1α/A3243G/LMNAAntibody+ subjectsType 2 diabetes (No defined etiology)P (antibody+ vs. type 2)
n 268 26 237  
Men 53.7 (144) 50.0 (13) 55.3 (131) 0.6 
Diagnosis age (years) 40.5 (36–44) 39/29/24 41 (37–44) 40.5 (36–44) 0.8 
Duration of diabetes (years) 14 (7–22) 25/4/1 15 (8–20) 14 (7–22) 0.8 
Initial treatment (%) (diet/oha/ins) 48/50/2 HNF-1α 100/0/0 35/61/4 49.5/49.5/1 0.3 
  A3243G 50/50/0    
  LMNA 100/0/0    
Current insulin therapy 53 (142) 50/100/0 85 (22) 50 (119) <0.001 
Mean BMI (kg/m231.6 ± 6.8 24.9/22.1/23.9 27.8 ± 6.6 32.2 ± 6.7 0.002 
WHR      
 Male 0.96 (0.93–1.0) — 0.94 (0.89–0.98) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.09 
 Female 0.88 (0.84–0.92) 0.89/0.82/0.90 0.85 (0.82–0.88) 0.88 (0.84–0.93) 0.04 
Anti-hypertensive therapy 57 (152) 0/0/100 27 (7) 61 (144) 0.003 
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.1 (4.5–5.8) 6.1/4.2/6.1 5.3 (5.1–5.8) 5.0 (4.5–5.8) 0.07 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.17 (1.5–3.3) 1.5/4.1/4.0* 1.62 (1.0–2.2) 2.19 (1.5–3.4) 0.01 
HbA1c (%) 8.7 (7.7–9.5) 8.1/7.8/7.0 9.3 (8.7–10.1) 8.7 (7.6–9.5) 0.08 
Family history diabetes (%) (mother/father/sib) 35/16/19 HNF-1α 50/0/0 27/12/8 35/17/20 0.13 (at least 1 with DM) 
  A3243G 100/0/50    
  LMNA 100/0/0    
Complications (n  18 171  
 Macrovascular      
  Coronary artery   5.6 (1) 25 (43) Pooled 0.09 
  Cerebrovascular   11 (2) 9.4 (16)  
  Peripheral vasc   11 (18)  
 Microvascular      
  Retinopathy   39 (7) 22 (37) 0.14 
  Microalbuminuria   28 (5) 25 (42) 0.8 
Whole groupGenetic etiology HNF-1α/A3243G/LMNAAntibody+ subjectsType 2 diabetes (No defined etiology)P (antibody+ vs. type 2)
n 268 26 237  
Men 53.7 (144) 50.0 (13) 55.3 (131) 0.6 
Diagnosis age (years) 40.5 (36–44) 39/29/24 41 (37–44) 40.5 (36–44) 0.8 
Duration of diabetes (years) 14 (7–22) 25/4/1 15 (8–20) 14 (7–22) 0.8 
Initial treatment (%) (diet/oha/ins) 48/50/2 HNF-1α 100/0/0 35/61/4 49.5/49.5/1 0.3 
  A3243G 50/50/0    
  LMNA 100/0/0    
Current insulin therapy 53 (142) 50/100/0 85 (22) 50 (119) <0.001 
Mean BMI (kg/m231.6 ± 6.8 24.9/22.1/23.9 27.8 ± 6.6 32.2 ± 6.7 0.002 
WHR      
 Male 0.96 (0.93–1.0) — 0.94 (0.89–0.98) 0.97 (0.94–1.01) 0.09 
 Female 0.88 (0.84–0.92) 0.89/0.82/0.90 0.85 (0.82–0.88) 0.88 (0.84–0.93) 0.04 
Anti-hypertensive therapy 57 (152) 0/0/100 27 (7) 61 (144) 0.003 
Cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.1 (4.5–5.8) 6.1/4.2/6.1 5.3 (5.1–5.8) 5.0 (4.5–5.8) 0.07 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.17 (1.5–3.3) 1.5/4.1/4.0* 1.62 (1.0–2.2) 2.19 (1.5–3.4) 0.01 
HbA1c (%) 8.7 (7.7–9.5) 8.1/7.8/7.0 9.3 (8.7–10.1) 8.7 (7.6–9.5) 0.08 
Family history diabetes (%) (mother/father/sib) 35/16/19 HNF-1α 50/0/0 27/12/8 35/17/20 0.13 (at least 1 with DM) 
  A3243G 100/0/50    
  LMNA 100/0/0    
Complications (n  18 171  
 Macrovascular      
  Coronary artery   5.6 (1) 25 (43) Pooled 0.09 
  Cerebrovascular   11 (2) 9.4 (16)  
  Peripheral vasc   11 (18)  
 Microvascular      
  Retinopathy   39 (7) 22 (37) 0.14 
  Microalbuminuria   28 (5) 25 (42) 0.8 

Data are % (n), median (interquartile range), and means ± SD unless otherwise indicated

*

Fasting TG n/a. DM, diabetes mellitus. Antibody+, antibody positive.

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