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Table 3—

Regression coefficient (SE) for association between plasma glucose, serum insulin, and HOMA of insulin resistance and β-cell function as outcome variables and serum 25OHD (nmol · l−1 · 10−1), adjusted for age, sex, BMI, leisure physical activity, and season

Outcome variablesNon-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black
Mexican American
β (SE)Pβ (SE)Pβ (SE)P
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) −0.009 (0.009) 0.32 0.023 (0.015) 0.13 −0.031 (0.012) 0.010 
Loge fasting insulin (pmol/l) −0.007 (0.004) 0.061 −0.003 (0.006) 0.69 −0.012 (0.005) 0.015 
Loge HOMA of insulin resistance −0.009 (0.004) 0.058 0.001 (0.007) 0.93 −0.016 (0.005) 0.0024 
Loge HOMA β-cell function* 0.003 (0.003) 0.33 −0.006 (0.007) 0.37 0.009 (0.005) 0.091 
n (for fasting blood sample) 2,766  1,736  1,726  
2-h glucose measurement (mmol/l) −0.035 (0.035) 0.32 0.068 (0.050) 0.18 −0.135 (0.067) 0.047 
n (for 2-h blood sample) 1,386  700  659  
Outcome variablesNon-Hispanic white
Non-Hispanic black
Mexican American
β (SE)Pβ (SE)Pβ (SE)P
Fasting glucose (mmol/l) −0.009 (0.009) 0.32 0.023 (0.015) 0.13 −0.031 (0.012) 0.010 
Loge fasting insulin (pmol/l) −0.007 (0.004) 0.061 −0.003 (0.006) 0.69 −0.012 (0.005) 0.015 
Loge HOMA of insulin resistance −0.009 (0.004) 0.058 0.001 (0.007) 0.93 −0.016 (0.005) 0.0024 
Loge HOMA β-cell function* 0.003 (0.003) 0.33 −0.006 (0.007) 0.37 0.009 (0.005) 0.091 
n (for fasting blood sample) 2,766  1,736  1,726  
2-h glucose measurement (mmol/l) −0.035 (0.035) 0.32 0.068 (0.050) 0.18 −0.135 (0.067) 0.047 
n (for 2-h blood sample) 1,386  700  659  

Based on those who attended NHANES III morning examination and fasted ≥8 h (excluding diagnosed diabetes).

*

Also adjusted for HOMA of insulin resistance.

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