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Table 2—

Change in nerve function over time

VariablesnBaseline1 year
2 years
3 years
Adjusted at 3 years
ΔP*ΔP*ΔP*
Median MNCV (m/s)          
    Control 215 53.34 ± 4.40 −0.49 ± 3.05 0.019 −0.93 ± 3.31 <0.001 −1.49 ± 3.91 <0.001 51.42 ± 3.49 
    Epalrestat 181 51.96 ± 4.49 +0.29 ± 3.11 0.214 +0.28 ± 3.70 0.310 +0.11 ± 3.54 0.687 52.57 ± 3.50 
    P  0.002 0.013  <0.001  <0.001  0.001 
MFWL of median motor nerve (ms)          
    Control 131 26.66 ± 2.46 +0.12 ± 1.17 0.242 +0.19 ± 1.34 0.112 +0.35 ± 1.37 0.004 27.15 ± 1.30 
    Epalrestat 125 27.00 ± 2.68 −0.28 ± 1.14 0.008 −0.31 ± 1.31 0.010 −0.26 ± 1.31 0.026 26.59 ± 1.30 
    P  0.283 0.007  0.003  <0.001  <0.001 
VPT (s)          
    Control 113 8.78 ± 3.83 −0.21 ± 3.18 0.492 −0.61 ± 3.16 0.043 −0.79 ± 3.89 0.033 7.83 ± 3.50 
    Epalrestat 84 8.01 ± 3.43 +0.57 ± 3.21 0.110 +0.58 ± 3.40 0.121 +0.63 ± 3.96 0.150 8.86 ± 3.50 
    P  0.147 0.095  0.012  0.013  0.041 
CVR–R interval at rest (%)          
    Control 159 2.51 ± 1.44 −0.04 ± 1.13 0.691 −0.20 ± 1.53 0.105 −0.26 ± 1.31 0.013 2.22 ± 1.01 
    Epalrestat 134 2.34 ± 1.32 +0.04 ± 1.38 0.761 +0.04 ± 1.37 0.707 −0.17 ± 1.27 0.113 2.21 ± 1.01 
    P  0.299 0.629  0.158  0.565  0.923 
Variation in resting heart rate (bpm)          
    Control 101 8.38 ± 5.73 −0.60 ± 4.94 0.224 −0.34 ± 5.12 0.505 −0.58 ± 5.38 0.279 7.51 ± 3.89 
    Epalrestat 83 7.01 ± 4.52 −0.10 ± 4.08 0.824 +0.54 ± 5.04 0.333 −0.39 ± 3.80 0.354 6.98 ± 3.90 
    P  0.072 0.452  0.244  0.776  0.369 
VariablesnBaseline1 year
2 years
3 years
Adjusted at 3 years
ΔP*ΔP*ΔP*
Median MNCV (m/s)          
    Control 215 53.34 ± 4.40 −0.49 ± 3.05 0.019 −0.93 ± 3.31 <0.001 −1.49 ± 3.91 <0.001 51.42 ± 3.49 
    Epalrestat 181 51.96 ± 4.49 +0.29 ± 3.11 0.214 +0.28 ± 3.70 0.310 +0.11 ± 3.54 0.687 52.57 ± 3.50 
    P  0.002 0.013  <0.001  <0.001  0.001 
MFWL of median motor nerve (ms)          
    Control 131 26.66 ± 2.46 +0.12 ± 1.17 0.242 +0.19 ± 1.34 0.112 +0.35 ± 1.37 0.004 27.15 ± 1.30 
    Epalrestat 125 27.00 ± 2.68 −0.28 ± 1.14 0.008 −0.31 ± 1.31 0.010 −0.26 ± 1.31 0.026 26.59 ± 1.30 
    P  0.283 0.007  0.003  <0.001  <0.001 
VPT (s)          
    Control 113 8.78 ± 3.83 −0.21 ± 3.18 0.492 −0.61 ± 3.16 0.043 −0.79 ± 3.89 0.033 7.83 ± 3.50 
    Epalrestat 84 8.01 ± 3.43 +0.57 ± 3.21 0.110 +0.58 ± 3.40 0.121 +0.63 ± 3.96 0.150 8.86 ± 3.50 
    P  0.147 0.095  0.012  0.013  0.041 
CVR–R interval at rest (%)          
    Control 159 2.51 ± 1.44 −0.04 ± 1.13 0.691 −0.20 ± 1.53 0.105 −0.26 ± 1.31 0.013 2.22 ± 1.01 
    Epalrestat 134 2.34 ± 1.32 +0.04 ± 1.38 0.761 +0.04 ± 1.37 0.707 −0.17 ± 1.27 0.113 2.21 ± 1.01 
    P  0.299 0.629  0.158  0.565  0.923 
Variation in resting heart rate (bpm)          
    Control 101 8.38 ± 5.73 −0.60 ± 4.94 0.224 −0.34 ± 5.12 0.505 −0.58 ± 5.38 0.279 7.51 ± 3.89 
    Epalrestat 83 7.01 ± 4.52 −0.10 ± 4.08 0.824 +0.54 ± 5.04 0.333 −0.39 ± 3.80 0.354 6.98 ± 3.90 
    P  0.072 0.452  0.244  0.776  0.369 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Δ, change vs. baseline.

*

P values were calculated using paired t test,

two-sample t test, and

ANCOVA including baseline values as covariates. VPT was measured on the medial malleolus in the low extremities using a 128-Hz tuning fork by measuring the number of seconds until the patient could no longer feel the vibrations after the tuning fork was placed on the medial malleolus.

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