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Table 3—

Analysis of intervention components

FeatureFeature prevalence (%)Number of participants studiedPercent success rate
Rate difference (%)
With feature (%)Without feature (%)
Target of the intervention      
    Patient: intervention targets knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors of patients 70.5 (12/17) (21,22,25,27–30,32–36) 2,036 67 60 
    System: intervention targets information systems, access to care, and/or health care provider roles 41 (7/17) (20–23,25,26,31) 2,532 71 60 
    Provider: intervention targets the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors of providers 6 (1/17) (24) 427 69 −69* 
How the intervention is designed      
    Language or literacy tailoring: intervention is tailored to the specific populations’ language or literacy level 53 (9/17) (21,22,24,29,30,32–34,36) 1,981 67 63 
    Cultural tailoring: intervention is tailored to the specific populations’ culture 29 (5/17) (22,29,30,33,34) 937 80 58 22 
    Needs assessment: intervention is designed based on an assessment of patient’s needs 18 (3/17) (27,29,30) 579 100 57 43* 
Who delivered the intervention      
    Health care provider: delivered by a licensed health care provider 82 (14/17) (20–23,25–31,33,34,36) 3,519 64 67 −3 
    Community educator/ layperson led: delivered by a layperson trained to deliver the intervention 29 (5/17) (25,29,30,32,35) 967 80 58 22 
Setting of the intervention      
    Primary care: delivered in the primary care system (e.g. family practice) 59 (10/17) (20,22–28,30,31) 3,189 60 71 −11 
    Community based: delivered outside of the health care setting (e.g. local church) 23.5 (4/17) (29,32,34,35) 722 75 62 13* 
    Hospital based: delivered in a clinic affiliated with a hospital 18 (3/17) (21,33,36) 401 67 64 3* 
How the intervention was delivered      
    Individual: intervention is delivered individually, one on one 76 (13/17) (20–28,30–33) 3,750 69 40 29 
    Individualized assessment: patient is assessed individually and intervention is tailored to the assessment 76 (13/17) (20–28,30–33) 3,570 69 50 19 
    Reassessment/reintervention: patient attends follow-up visit for reassessment and further education or management 59 (10/17) (20–22,25,27–30,32,33) 2,084 80 43 37 
    Group: intervention is delivered to a group of patients 41 (7/17) (28–30,32–36) 1,226 57 70 −13 
    Diabetes education: intervention is aimed at patient’s diabetes knowledge for specific diabetes management topics 41 (7/17) (21,25,28,32–34,36) 1,054 43 80 −37 
    Use of treatment algorithms: use of a predefined treatment algorithm or clinical guidelines (e.g. cholesterol, diabetes) 35 (6/17) (20–23,25,31) 1,935 83 54 29 
    Didactic teaching: education provided was delivered mainly by lectures 29 (5/17) (28,29,33,34,36) 660 40 75 −35 
    Behavioral: focuses on behavior-related tasks (e.g. exercise, diet) using behavior-based interventions 29 (5/17) (27,29,30,33,35) 729 100 50 50 
    Feedback: intervention provides specific feedback to patients on their diabetes control or performance 29 (5/17) (20,25,27,29,33) 950 80 58 22 
    Interactive/discussion: education provided was delivered mainly by an interactive format 23.5 (4/17) (29,33,34,36) 540 50 69 −19* 
    Self-management education: comprehensive education that focuses on developing diabetes knowledge and patients’ ability to self-manage their diabetes 18 (3/17) (22,29,30) 769 100 57 43* 
    Problem solving: development of patient’s problem-solving skills required to manage their diabetes 18 (3/17) (29,32,33) 596 100 57 43* 
    Family support: intervention encourages family members to get involved in attending the session 12 (2/17) (27,29) 379 100 60 40* 
Intensity of the intervention      
    Long duration: intervention is delivered over ≥6 months 82 (14/17) (20–23,25,27–33,35,36) 3,184 79 79 
    High intensity: the patient is in direct contact with the intervention >10 times 47 (8/17) (20,21,29–31,33–35) 1,462 87 44 43 
FeatureFeature prevalence (%)Number of participants studiedPercent success rate
Rate difference (%)
With feature (%)Without feature (%)
Target of the intervention      
    Patient: intervention targets knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors of patients 70.5 (12/17) (21,22,25,27–30,32–36) 2,036 67 60 
    System: intervention targets information systems, access to care, and/or health care provider roles 41 (7/17) (20–23,25,26,31) 2,532 71 60 
    Provider: intervention targets the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors of providers 6 (1/17) (24) 427 69 −69* 
How the intervention is designed      
    Language or literacy tailoring: intervention is tailored to the specific populations’ language or literacy level 53 (9/17) (21,22,24,29,30,32–34,36) 1,981 67 63 
    Cultural tailoring: intervention is tailored to the specific populations’ culture 29 (5/17) (22,29,30,33,34) 937 80 58 22 
    Needs assessment: intervention is designed based on an assessment of patient’s needs 18 (3/17) (27,29,30) 579 100 57 43* 
Who delivered the intervention      
    Health care provider: delivered by a licensed health care provider 82 (14/17) (20–23,25–31,33,34,36) 3,519 64 67 −3 
    Community educator/ layperson led: delivered by a layperson trained to deliver the intervention 29 (5/17) (25,29,30,32,35) 967 80 58 22 
Setting of the intervention      
    Primary care: delivered in the primary care system (e.g. family practice) 59 (10/17) (20,22–28,30,31) 3,189 60 71 −11 
    Community based: delivered outside of the health care setting (e.g. local church) 23.5 (4/17) (29,32,34,35) 722 75 62 13* 
    Hospital based: delivered in a clinic affiliated with a hospital 18 (3/17) (21,33,36) 401 67 64 3* 
How the intervention was delivered      
    Individual: intervention is delivered individually, one on one 76 (13/17) (20–28,30–33) 3,750 69 40 29 
    Individualized assessment: patient is assessed individually and intervention is tailored to the assessment 76 (13/17) (20–28,30–33) 3,570 69 50 19 
    Reassessment/reintervention: patient attends follow-up visit for reassessment and further education or management 59 (10/17) (20–22,25,27–30,32,33) 2,084 80 43 37 
    Group: intervention is delivered to a group of patients 41 (7/17) (28–30,32–36) 1,226 57 70 −13 
    Diabetes education: intervention is aimed at patient’s diabetes knowledge for specific diabetes management topics 41 (7/17) (21,25,28,32–34,36) 1,054 43 80 −37 
    Use of treatment algorithms: use of a predefined treatment algorithm or clinical guidelines (e.g. cholesterol, diabetes) 35 (6/17) (20–23,25,31) 1,935 83 54 29 
    Didactic teaching: education provided was delivered mainly by lectures 29 (5/17) (28,29,33,34,36) 660 40 75 −35 
    Behavioral: focuses on behavior-related tasks (e.g. exercise, diet) using behavior-based interventions 29 (5/17) (27,29,30,33,35) 729 100 50 50 
    Feedback: intervention provides specific feedback to patients on their diabetes control or performance 29 (5/17) (20,25,27,29,33) 950 80 58 22 
    Interactive/discussion: education provided was delivered mainly by an interactive format 23.5 (4/17) (29,33,34,36) 540 50 69 −19* 
    Self-management education: comprehensive education that focuses on developing diabetes knowledge and patients’ ability to self-manage their diabetes 18 (3/17) (22,29,30) 769 100 57 43* 
    Problem solving: development of patient’s problem-solving skills required to manage their diabetes 18 (3/17) (29,32,33) 596 100 57 43* 
    Family support: intervention encourages family members to get involved in attending the session 12 (2/17) (27,29) 379 100 60 40* 
Intensity of the intervention      
    Long duration: intervention is delivered over ≥6 months 82 (14/17) (20–23,25,27–33,35,36) 3,184 79 79 
    High intensity: the patient is in direct contact with the intervention >10 times 47 (8/17) (20,21,29–31,33–35) 1,462 87 44 43 
*

Rate difference should be interpreted carefully due to low number of studies examined.

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