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Table 1—

Comparison of baseline characteristics between men and women who developed or did not develop diabetes at 6 years*

Men
Women
NondiabeticDiabeticAge-adjusted P valueNondiabeticDiabeticAge-adjusted P value
n 1,323 60  1,407 30  
Age (years) 46.9 ± 9.9 50.5 ± 9.6  47.4 ± 9.9 53.2 ± 8.2  
A1C (%) 5.4 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.5 <0.0001 5.3 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 0.6 <0.0001 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.54 ± 0.48 6.17 ± 0.50 <0.0001 5.17 ± 0.46 6.00 ± 0.61 <0.0001 
Insulin (pmol/l) 41.1 ×/÷ 1.7 57.9 ×/÷ 1.8 <0.0001 39.2 ×/÷ 1.6 64.5 ×/÷ 1.8 <0.0001 
BMI (kg/m225.1 ± 2.9 27.6 ± 4.3 <0.0001 23.6 ± 3.7 29.4 ± 6.0 <0.0001 
Waist circumference (cm) 89 ± 9 98 ± 11 <0.0001 77 ± 10 91 ± 13 <0.0001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.51 ± 0.38 1.47 ± 0.44 0.3 1.82 ± 0.42 1.48 ± 0.38 <0.0001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.12 ×/÷ 1.7 1.67 ×/÷ 1.8 <0.0001 0.84 ×/÷ 1.64 1.50 ×/÷ 1.57 <0.0001 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 132 ± 14 139 ± 16 0.001 126 ± 14 138 ± 16 0.0005 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 82 ± 10 84 ± 9 0.1 77 ± 9 83 ± 6 0.003 
Hypertension (%) 42 63 0.008 29 63 0.006 
Family history of diabetes (%) 17 25 0.08 20 47 0.0006 
Sporting activity (%)       
    None 46 53  50 77  
    Moderate (<1 session per week) 20 22 0.5 15 13 0.03 
    Frequent (≥1 session per week) 34 25  35 10  
Smoking (%) 25 28 0.2 12 13 0.2 
Alcohol intake (%)       
    None 13  36 27  
    Moderate 73 65 0.02 41 50 0.5 
    Elevated 14 28  23 23  
Child with birth weight >4 kg — — — 15 31 0.03 
Men
Women
NondiabeticDiabeticAge-adjusted P valueNondiabeticDiabeticAge-adjusted P value
n 1,323 60  1,407 30  
Age (years) 46.9 ± 9.9 50.5 ± 9.6  47.4 ± 9.9 53.2 ± 8.2  
A1C (%) 5.4 ± 0.4 5.8 ± 0.5 <0.0001 5.3 ± 0.4 5.9 ± 0.6 <0.0001 
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l) 5.54 ± 0.48 6.17 ± 0.50 <0.0001 5.17 ± 0.46 6.00 ± 0.61 <0.0001 
Insulin (pmol/l) 41.1 ×/÷ 1.7 57.9 ×/÷ 1.8 <0.0001 39.2 ×/÷ 1.6 64.5 ×/÷ 1.8 <0.0001 
BMI (kg/m225.1 ± 2.9 27.6 ± 4.3 <0.0001 23.6 ± 3.7 29.4 ± 6.0 <0.0001 
Waist circumference (cm) 89 ± 9 98 ± 11 <0.0001 77 ± 10 91 ± 13 <0.0001 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.51 ± 0.38 1.47 ± 0.44 0.3 1.82 ± 0.42 1.48 ± 0.38 <0.0001 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.12 ×/÷ 1.7 1.67 ×/÷ 1.8 <0.0001 0.84 ×/÷ 1.64 1.50 ×/÷ 1.57 <0.0001 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 132 ± 14 139 ± 16 0.001 126 ± 14 138 ± 16 0.0005 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 82 ± 10 84 ± 9 0.1 77 ± 9 83 ± 6 0.003 
Hypertension (%) 42 63 0.008 29 63 0.006 
Family history of diabetes (%) 17 25 0.08 20 47 0.0006 
Sporting activity (%)       
    None 46 53  50 77  
    Moderate (<1 session per week) 20 22 0.5 15 13 0.03 
    Frequent (≥1 session per week) 34 25  35 10  
Smoking (%) 25 28 0.2 12 13 0.2 
Alcohol intake (%)       
    None 13  36 27  
    Moderate 73 65 0.02 41 50 0.5 
    Elevated 14 28  23 23  
Child with birth weight >4 kg — — — 15 31 0.03 

Data are means ± SD, geometric mean ×/÷ SD, or column %.

*

Comparisons are adjusted on age.

Arterial hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or an antihypertensive treatment (30).

Alcohol intake coding: no consumption, moderate (1–20 g/day for women and 1–40 g/day for men), and elevated (>20 g/day for women and >40 g/day for men).

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