Skip to Main Content
Table 1—

Age-adjusted diabetes-related risk factors of 78,419 women without diabetes at baseline (1980) across ethnic groups

Ethnic group
White*AsianHispanicBlack
n 75,584 801 613 1,421 
Age (years) 45.7 45.9 46.2 46.1 
BMI (kg/m224.3 ± 4.4 22.7 ± 0.43 24.3 ± 4.0 26.0 ± 5.3 
Parental history of diabetes (%) 17.1 21.1 21.4 17.7 
Moderate/vigorous exercise (h/week) 4.0 ± 2.7 3.4 ± 3.7 3.8 ±4.2 3.4 ± 3.8 
Current smoker (%) 28.2 14.6 15.1 25.9 
Hypertension (%) 14.0 13.4 10.4 28.1 
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 4.6 6.5 5.4 4.9 
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 6.5 ± 10.4 2.6 ± 8.1 4.7 ± 14.6 4.3 ± 12.8 
Polyunsaturated fat (% energy) 5.3 ± 1.56 5.0 ± 1.4 4.8 ± 0.2 5.1 ± 3.8 
Saturated fat (% energy) 15.6 ±3.5 14.5 ± 3.9 15.2 ± 5.0 14.0 ± 3.8 
Polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.4 
Trans fat (% energy) 2.2 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.02 1.9 ± 0.4 
Total fat intake (% energy) 39.0 ± 8.2 37.6 ± 9.3 37.9 ± 10.9 36.3 ± 9.8 
Cereal fiber (g/day) 12.2 ± 4.5 11.0 ± 4.1 8.7 ± 2.2 7.4 ± 3.8 
Total crude fiber intake (g/day) 53.5 ± 1.5 55.2 ± 1.7 73.7 ± 2.0 55.1 ± 1.8 
Glycemic load 121 ± 35.3 132 ± 36.3 124 ± 49.5 137 ± 45.2 
Dietary score§ 6.2 ± 2.7 6.4 ± 0.3 6.2 ± 2.5 6.1 ± 3.7 
Magnesium (mg/day) 295 ± 69.9 282 ± 69.0 293 ± 71.5 271 ± 86.7 
Caffeine (mg/day) 395 ± 302 345 ± 11.5 335 ± 379 269 ± 336 
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 1,571 ± 492 1,617 ± 561 1,561 ± 698 1,578 ± 622 
Ethnic group
White*AsianHispanicBlack
n 75,584 801 613 1,421 
Age (years) 45.7 45.9 46.2 46.1 
BMI (kg/m224.3 ± 4.4 22.7 ± 0.43 24.3 ± 4.0 26.0 ± 5.3 
Parental history of diabetes (%) 17.1 21.1 21.4 17.7 
Moderate/vigorous exercise (h/week) 4.0 ± 2.7 3.4 ± 3.7 3.8 ±4.2 3.4 ± 3.8 
Current smoker (%) 28.2 14.6 15.1 25.9 
Hypertension (%) 14.0 13.4 10.4 28.1 
Hypercholesterolemia (%) 4.6 6.5 5.4 4.9 
Alcohol consumption (g/day) 6.5 ± 10.4 2.6 ± 8.1 4.7 ± 14.6 4.3 ± 12.8 
Polyunsaturated fat (% energy) 5.3 ± 1.56 5.0 ± 1.4 4.8 ± 0.2 5.1 ± 3.8 
Saturated fat (% energy) 15.6 ±3.5 14.5 ± 3.9 15.2 ± 5.0 14.0 ± 3.8 
Polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio 0.4 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.2 0.3 ± 0.02 0.4 ± 0.4 
Trans fat (% energy) 2.2 ± 0.7 1.9 ± 0.6 2.0 ± 0.02 1.9 ± 0.4 
Total fat intake (% energy) 39.0 ± 8.2 37.6 ± 9.3 37.9 ± 10.9 36.3 ± 9.8 
Cereal fiber (g/day) 12.2 ± 4.5 11.0 ± 4.1 8.7 ± 2.2 7.4 ± 3.8 
Total crude fiber intake (g/day) 53.5 ± 1.5 55.2 ± 1.7 73.7 ± 2.0 55.1 ± 1.8 
Glycemic load 121 ± 35.3 132 ± 36.3 124 ± 49.5 137 ± 45.2 
Dietary score§ 6.2 ± 2.7 6.4 ± 0.3 6.2 ± 2.5 6.1 ± 3.7 
Magnesium (mg/day) 295 ± 69.9 282 ± 69.0 293 ± 71.5 271 ± 86.7 
Caffeine (mg/day) 395 ± 302 345 ± 11.5 335 ± 379 269 ± 336 
Total energy intake (kcal/day) 1,571 ± 492 1,617 ± 561 1,561 ± 698 1,578 ± 622 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

*

Includes those with Southern European/Mediterranean ancestry, Scandinavian ancestry, and other Caucasian ancestry.

P < 0.05,

P < 0.0001 as compared with whites.

§

The dietary score is the sum of quintile values (0–4) for cereal fiber, ratio of polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat (ascending order), glycemic load, and trans fat (descending order). A higher score indicates a healthier diet.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal