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Table 1—

Changes in physiological and biochemical variables

VariablenBaseline meanMean change, baseline to follow-upBetween-group difference in change
Exercise time (min)     
 Experimental 30 9.42 ± 3.28 1.56 (0.24 to 3.20)*  
 Control 31 10.36 ± 4.39 −0.28 (−1.30 to 0.37) 56.6 to 231.5* 
Peak gradient (%)     
 Experimental 30 8.38 ± 4.6 2.4 (1.06 to 3.70)*  
 Control 31 9.2 ± 5.7 −0.14 (−1.07 to 0.78) 0.94 to 4.1* 
Peak Vo2 (ml/min)     
 Experimental 28 1,925 ± 684 −30.8 (−139.1 to 77.6)  
 Control 30 1,956 ± 600 −185.8 (−304.1 to −67.5)* −1.8 to 311.9 
Peak Vo2 (ml · kg−1 · min−1    
 Experimental 28 20.1 ± 5.9 −0.04 (−1.06 to 0.99)  
 Control 30 20.6 ± 5.5 −1.6 (−3.0 to −0.28) −1.06 to 0.99 
BMI (kg/m2    
 Experimental 32 35.4 ± 7.8 0.18 (−1.22 to 1.58)  
 Control 31 33.7 ± 5.7 0.82 (−0.54 to 2.20) −1.7 to 0.3 
Systolic BP (mmHg)     
 Experimental 32 149.4 ± 20.2 −3.67 (−15.53 to 8.20)  
 Control 31 143.0 ± 19.5 7.14 (−4.51 to 18.80) −24.7 to −2.0 
Diastolic BP (mmHg)     
 Experimental 32 85.6 ± 9.7 −3.97 (−9.9 to 1.96)  
 Control 31 82.0 ± 12.5 −1.34 (−7.27 to 4.59) −9.8 to 1.7 
HbAlc (%)     
 Experimental 26 8.3 ± 1.3 −0.31 (−1.02 to 0.40)  
 Control 24 8.8 ± 1.5 0.37 (−0.35 to 1.10) −1.23 to −0.07 
Cholesterol (mmol/l)     
 Experimental 23 4.8 ± 1.1 −0.07 (−0.38 to 0.23)  
 Control 24 4.72 ± 1.2 0.10 (−0.22 to 0.41) −0.55 to 0.03 
HDL-C (mmol/l)     
 Experimental 22 1.14 ± 0.29 0.05 (−0.07 to 0.17)  
 Control 21 1.12 ± 0.35 0.03 (−0.09 to 0.15) −0.09 to 0.13 
LDL-C (mmol/l)     
 Experimental 21 2.73 ± 0.99 −0.10 (−0.31 to 0.10)  
 Control 19 2.52 ± 0.64 0.01 (−0.21 to 0.23) −0.32 to 0.02 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)     
 Experimental 23 2.1 ± 0.99 0.20 (−0.44 to 0.84)  
 Control 23 2.7 ± 3.08 0.07 (−0.57 to 0.72) −0.42 to 0.56 
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)     
 Experimental 22 310 ± 73.0 −3.59 (−25.48 to 18.30)  
 Control 21 315 ± 54.7 21.53 (0.01 to 43.06) −57.2 to −4.3 
VariablenBaseline meanMean change, baseline to follow-upBetween-group difference in change
Exercise time (min)     
 Experimental 30 9.42 ± 3.28 1.56 (0.24 to 3.20)*  
 Control 31 10.36 ± 4.39 −0.28 (−1.30 to 0.37) 56.6 to 231.5* 
Peak gradient (%)     
 Experimental 30 8.38 ± 4.6 2.4 (1.06 to 3.70)*  
 Control 31 9.2 ± 5.7 −0.14 (−1.07 to 0.78) 0.94 to 4.1* 
Peak Vo2 (ml/min)     
 Experimental 28 1,925 ± 684 −30.8 (−139.1 to 77.6)  
 Control 30 1,956 ± 600 −185.8 (−304.1 to −67.5)* −1.8 to 311.9 
Peak Vo2 (ml · kg−1 · min−1    
 Experimental 28 20.1 ± 5.9 −0.04 (−1.06 to 0.99)  
 Control 30 20.6 ± 5.5 −1.6 (−3.0 to −0.28) −1.06 to 0.99 
BMI (kg/m2    
 Experimental 32 35.4 ± 7.8 0.18 (−1.22 to 1.58)  
 Control 31 33.7 ± 5.7 0.82 (−0.54 to 2.20) −1.7 to 0.3 
Systolic BP (mmHg)     
 Experimental 32 149.4 ± 20.2 −3.67 (−15.53 to 8.20)  
 Control 31 143.0 ± 19.5 7.14 (−4.51 to 18.80) −24.7 to −2.0 
Diastolic BP (mmHg)     
 Experimental 32 85.6 ± 9.7 −3.97 (−9.9 to 1.96)  
 Control 31 82.0 ± 12.5 −1.34 (−7.27 to 4.59) −9.8 to 1.7 
HbAlc (%)     
 Experimental 26 8.3 ± 1.3 −0.31 (−1.02 to 0.40)  
 Control 24 8.8 ± 1.5 0.37 (−0.35 to 1.10) −1.23 to −0.07 
Cholesterol (mmol/l)     
 Experimental 23 4.8 ± 1.1 −0.07 (−0.38 to 0.23)  
 Control 24 4.72 ± 1.2 0.10 (−0.22 to 0.41) −0.55 to 0.03 
HDL-C (mmol/l)     
 Experimental 22 1.14 ± 0.29 0.05 (−0.07 to 0.17)  
 Control 21 1.12 ± 0.35 0.03 (−0.09 to 0.15) −0.09 to 0.13 
LDL-C (mmol/l)     
 Experimental 21 2.73 ± 0.99 −0.10 (−0.31 to 0.10)  
 Control 19 2.52 ± 0.64 0.01 (−0.21 to 0.23) −0.32 to 0.02 
Triglycerides (mmol/l)     
 Experimental 23 2.1 ± 0.99 0.20 (−0.44 to 0.84)  
 Control 23 2.7 ± 3.08 0.07 (−0.57 to 0.72) −0.42 to 0.56 
Fibrinogen (mg/dl)     
 Experimental 22 310 ± 73.0 −3.59 (−25.48 to 18.30)  
 Control 21 315 ± 54.7 21.53 (0.01 to 43.06) −57.2 to −4.3 

Data are means ± SD, mean (95% CI), and 95% CI.

*

P < 0.01;

P < 0.05.

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