Table 2—

RR of type 2 diabetes according to quintiles of sugar intake in the whole cohort of the WHS

Quintiles of sugar intake
P for trend
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)
Total sugar       
 Case subjects 215 190 183 167 163  
 Person-years 44,414 44,580 44,464 44,607 44,457  
 Model 1 1.0 0.87 (0.72–0.84) 0.84 (0.68–1.02) 0.75 (0.61–0.92) 0.73 (0.59–0.89) 0.0007 
 Model 2 1.0 0.94 (0.77–1.15) 0.88 (0.72–1.08) 0.92 (0.74–1.14) 0.86 (0.69–1.06) 0.17 
Sucrose       
 Case subjects 196 194 175 188 165  
 Person-years 44,362 44,298 44,549 44,567 44,746  
 Model 1 1.0 0.99 (0.81–1.21) 0.89 (0.72–1.09) 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 0.82 (0.66–1.01) 0.06 
 Model 2 1.0 1.00 (0.81–1.23) 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 1.00 (0.81–1.24) 0.84 (0.67–1.04) 0.16 
Fructose       
 Case subjects 208 189 175 177 169  
 Person-years 44,564 44,515 44,479 44,587 44,379  
 Model 1 1.0 0.90 (0.74–1.1) 0.83 (0.68–1.02) 0.83 (0.68–1.02) 0.79 (0.65–0.97) 0.02 
 Model 2 1.0 0.99 (0.81–1.22) 1.04 (0.85–1.29) 1.03 (0.83–1.27) 0.96 (0.78–1.19) 0.86 
Glucose       
 Case subjects 203 192 178 168 177  
 Person-years 44,693 44,426 44,470 44,626 44,308  
 Model 1 1.0 0.95 (0.78–1.16) 0.87 (0.71–1.06) 0.81 (0.66–0.99) 0.85 (0.70–1.05) 0.04 
 Model 2 1.0 1.08 (0.88–1.33) 1.02 (0.82–1.26) 0.96 (0.77–1.19) 1.04 (0.85–1.28) 0.91 
Lactose       
 Case subjects 198 205 186 157 172  
 Person-years 44,671 44,458 44,545 44,528 44,321  
 Model 1 1.0 1.05 (0.86–1.27) 0.94 (0.77–1.15) 0.79 (0.64–0.97) 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 0.02 
 Model 2 1.0 1.08 (0.88–1.32) 1.03 (0.83–1.26) 0.86 (0.69–1.07) 0.99 (0.8–1.22) 0.33 
Starch       
 Case subjects 199 179 200 185 155  
 Person-years 44,477 44,655 44,580 44,517 44,292  
 Model 1 1.0 0.91 (0.76–1.11) 1.03 (0.85–1.26) 0.96 (0.49–1.18) 0.83 (0.67–1.02) 0.19 
 Model 2 1.0 0.95 (0.77–1.17) 1.05 (0.85–1.28) 1.06 (0.86–1.30) 0.88 (0.71–1.09) 0.61 
Quintiles of sugar intake
P for trend
1 (lowest)2345 (highest)
Total sugar       
 Case subjects 215 190 183 167 163  
 Person-years 44,414 44,580 44,464 44,607 44,457  
 Model 1 1.0 0.87 (0.72–0.84) 0.84 (0.68–1.02) 0.75 (0.61–0.92) 0.73 (0.59–0.89) 0.0007 
 Model 2 1.0 0.94 (0.77–1.15) 0.88 (0.72–1.08) 0.92 (0.74–1.14) 0.86 (0.69–1.06) 0.17 
Sucrose       
 Case subjects 196 194 175 188 165  
 Person-years 44,362 44,298 44,549 44,567 44,746  
 Model 1 1.0 0.99 (0.81–1.21) 0.89 (0.72–1.09) 0.95 (0.77–1.16) 0.82 (0.66–1.01) 0.06 
 Model 2 1.0 1.00 (0.81–1.23) 0.98 (0.79–1.22) 1.00 (0.81–1.24) 0.84 (0.67–1.04) 0.16 
Fructose       
 Case subjects 208 189 175 177 169  
 Person-years 44,564 44,515 44,479 44,587 44,379  
 Model 1 1.0 0.90 (0.74–1.1) 0.83 (0.68–1.02) 0.83 (0.68–1.02) 0.79 (0.65–0.97) 0.02 
 Model 2 1.0 0.99 (0.81–1.22) 1.04 (0.85–1.29) 1.03 (0.83–1.27) 0.96 (0.78–1.19) 0.86 
Glucose       
 Case subjects 203 192 178 168 177  
 Person-years 44,693 44,426 44,470 44,626 44,308  
 Model 1 1.0 0.95 (0.78–1.16) 0.87 (0.71–1.06) 0.81 (0.66–0.99) 0.85 (0.70–1.05) 0.04 
 Model 2 1.0 1.08 (0.88–1.33) 1.02 (0.82–1.26) 0.96 (0.77–1.19) 1.04 (0.85–1.28) 0.91 
Lactose       
 Case subjects 198 205 186 157 172  
 Person-years 44,671 44,458 44,545 44,528 44,321  
 Model 1 1.0 1.05 (0.86–1.27) 0.94 (0.77–1.15) 0.79 (0.64–0.97) 0.86 (0.70–1.06) 0.02 
 Model 2 1.0 1.08 (0.88–1.32) 1.03 (0.83–1.26) 0.86 (0.69–1.07) 0.99 (0.8–1.22) 0.33 
Starch       
 Case subjects 199 179 200 185 155  
 Person-years 44,477 44,655 44,580 44,517 44,292  
 Model 1 1.0 0.91 (0.76–1.11) 1.03 (0.85–1.26) 0.96 (0.49–1.18) 0.83 (0.67–1.02) 0.19 
 Model 2 1.0 0.95 (0.77–1.17) 1.05 (0.85–1.28) 1.06 (0.86–1.30) 0.88 (0.71–1.09) 0.61 

Data are RR and RR (95% CI). All covariate values are according to the quintiles of sucrose intake.

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