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Table 1—

Characteristics of 5,675 nondiabetic subjects in the Inter99 study group into quartiles of HOMA-IR

Quartiles
0.12 to <0.790.79 to <1.151.15 to <1.761.76 to 14.74P*
Participants (n1,425 1,418 1,421 1,411  
Men (%) 41.7 45.9 47.9 57.8 0.000 
Physically inactive (%) 29.6 30.1 37.8 40.2 0.000 
Smokers (%) 47.3 42.5 37.0 30.5 0.000 
Normal glucose tolerant (%) 91.0 85.8 80.0 58.8 0.000 
Impaired fasting glucose (%) 1.8 6.1 9.9 17.7 0.000 
Impaired glucose tolerant (%) 7.2 8.1 10.2 23.5 0.000 
Age (years) 45.1 (40.0–50.1) 45.0 (39.9–50.2) 45.0 (40.0–50.2) 45.1 (40.0–50.3) 0.067 
BMI (kg/m223.3 (21.5–25.2) 24.7 (22.8–26.8) 26.1 (23.9–28.5) 28.9 (26.0–32.2) 0.000 
Waist (cm) 78.0 (71.0–86.0) 83.0 (75.0–91.0) 87.0 (78.0–95.0) 95.0 (87.0–104.0) 0.000 
Energy (kcal) 2,320 (1,965–3,042) 2,270 (1,873–2,983) 2,286 (1,925–3,037) 2,282 (1,918–2,976) 0.000 
Fat (E%) 32.0 (27.5–39.0) 32.7 (28.3–39.7) 32.8 (28.0–40.2) 32.3 (28.2–40.2) 0.185 
Protein (E%) 13.3 (12.7–16.3) 13.6 (12.8–16.4) 13.7 (12.8–16.4) 13.8 (12.9–16.7) 0.000 
Alcohol (E%) 3.2 (1.1–6.5) 2.9 (1.0–5.5) 2.7 (0.9–5.4) 2.7 (0.8–5.7) 0.000 
Carbohydrate (E%) 49.2 (40.7–53.1) 48.8 (40.8–52.4) 48.7 (40.4–52.4) 48.7 (39.9–51.9) 0.092 
Carbohydrate (g/day) 277 (220–354) 272 (209–348) 272 (214–339) 272 (214–337) 0.000 
Sucrose (g/day) 28.0 (18.9–48.6) 27.9 (18.9–48.9) 27.2 (19.1–48.3) 25.8 (18.3–48.0) 0.051 
Glucose (g/day) 10.6 (5.9–19.2) 9.6 (5.7–18.1) 9.3 (5.5–17.4) 9.3 (5.3–17.3) 0.064 
Fructose (g/day) 9.3 (5.0–18.3) 8.6 (4.7–17.2) 8.4 (4.7–16.5) 8.1 (4.4–16.3) 0.066 
Lactose (g/day) 9.4 (5.3–22.3) 9.6 (5.1–23.1) 9.9 (5.7–23.3) 10.2 (5.6–25.6) 0.004 
Quartiles
0.12 to <0.790.79 to <1.151.15 to <1.761.76 to 14.74P*
Participants (n1,425 1,418 1,421 1,411  
Men (%) 41.7 45.9 47.9 57.8 0.000 
Physically inactive (%) 29.6 30.1 37.8 40.2 0.000 
Smokers (%) 47.3 42.5 37.0 30.5 0.000 
Normal glucose tolerant (%) 91.0 85.8 80.0 58.8 0.000 
Impaired fasting glucose (%) 1.8 6.1 9.9 17.7 0.000 
Impaired glucose tolerant (%) 7.2 8.1 10.2 23.5 0.000 
Age (years) 45.1 (40.0–50.1) 45.0 (39.9–50.2) 45.0 (40.0–50.2) 45.1 (40.0–50.3) 0.067 
BMI (kg/m223.3 (21.5–25.2) 24.7 (22.8–26.8) 26.1 (23.9–28.5) 28.9 (26.0–32.2) 0.000 
Waist (cm) 78.0 (71.0–86.0) 83.0 (75.0–91.0) 87.0 (78.0–95.0) 95.0 (87.0–104.0) 0.000 
Energy (kcal) 2,320 (1,965–3,042) 2,270 (1,873–2,983) 2,286 (1,925–3,037) 2,282 (1,918–2,976) 0.000 
Fat (E%) 32.0 (27.5–39.0) 32.7 (28.3–39.7) 32.8 (28.0–40.2) 32.3 (28.2–40.2) 0.185 
Protein (E%) 13.3 (12.7–16.3) 13.6 (12.8–16.4) 13.7 (12.8–16.4) 13.8 (12.9–16.7) 0.000 
Alcohol (E%) 3.2 (1.1–6.5) 2.9 (1.0–5.5) 2.7 (0.9–5.4) 2.7 (0.8–5.7) 0.000 
Carbohydrate (E%) 49.2 (40.7–53.1) 48.8 (40.8–52.4) 48.7 (40.4–52.4) 48.7 (39.9–51.9) 0.092 
Carbohydrate (g/day) 277 (220–354) 272 (209–348) 272 (214–339) 272 (214–337) 0.000 
Sucrose (g/day) 28.0 (18.9–48.6) 27.9 (18.9–48.9) 27.2 (19.1–48.3) 25.8 (18.3–48.0) 0.051 
Glucose (g/day) 10.6 (5.9–19.2) 9.6 (5.7–18.1) 9.3 (5.5–17.4) 9.3 (5.3–17.3) 0.064 
Fructose (g/day) 9.3 (5.0–18.3) 8.6 (4.7–17.2) 8.4 (4.7–16.5) 8.1 (4.4–16.3) 0.066 
Lactose (g/day) 9.4 (5.3–22.3) 9.6 (5.1–23.1) 9.9 (5.7–23.3) 10.2 (5.6–25.6) 0.004 

Data are medians and interquartile range (25th to 75th percentile) unless otherwise indicated.

*

P values for trend are analyzed in regression models with HOMA-IR as the continuous explanatory variable and sex as the categorical explanatory variable.

Percentages are based on individuals where both fasting and 2-h plasma glucose values were available.

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