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Table 2—

Associations between carbohydrate-related dietary factors and HOMA-IR in 5,675 nondiabetic subjects in the Inter99 cohort

Dependent variable
HOMA ratio* (95% CI)PHOMA ratio (95% CI)P
Explanatory variables     
    Daily glycemic index (per 10 units) 1.02 (0.99–1.04) 0.230 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.315 
    Daily glycemic load (per 30 units) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.021 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.047 
    Carbohydrate (per 3 E%) 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.058 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.011 
    Sucrose (per 1 E%) 1.00 (0.98–1.00) 0.147 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.444 
    Glucose (per 1 E%) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.020 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.001 
    Fructose (per 1 E%) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.020 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.002 
    Lactose (per 1 E%) 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 0.000 1.02 (1.01–1.02) 0.000 
    Dietary fiber (per 10 g/day) 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.000 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.001 
    Fruit and vegetables (per 100 g/day) 0.99 (0.98–0.99) 0.000 0.99 (0.98–0.99) 0.000 
Dependent variable
HOMA ratio* (95% CI)PHOMA ratio (95% CI)P
Explanatory variables     
    Daily glycemic index (per 10 units) 1.02 (0.99–1.04) 0.230 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.315 
    Daily glycemic load (per 30 units) 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.021 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.047 
    Carbohydrate (per 3 E%) 1.00 (0.99–1.00) 0.058 0.99 (0.99–1.00) 0.011 
    Sucrose (per 1 E%) 1.00 (0.98–1.00) 0.147 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.444 
    Glucose (per 1 E%) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.020 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.001 
    Fructose (per 1 E%) 0.99 (0.98–1.00) 0.020 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.002 
    Lactose (per 1 E%) 1.02 (1.01–1.03) 0.000 1.02 (1.01–1.02) 0.000 
    Dietary fiber (per 10 g/day) 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.000 0.97 (0.96–0.99) 0.001 
    Fruit and vegetables (per 100 g/day) 0.99 (0.98–0.99) 0.000 0.99 (0.98–0.99) 0.000 
*

Univariate analyses.

Adjusted for age, sex, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, BMI, and waist circumference. Values >1 indicate a positive association, and values <1 indicate an inverse association.

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