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Table 1—

Effects of physical activity counseling on energy expenditure (METs per hour per week); body weight; BMI; waist circumference; FPG; HbA1c; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; resting heart rate; serum total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol; serum triglycerides; and 10-year CHD risk in 179 type 2 diabetic subjects divided into six groups on the basis of different amounts of energy expenditure

Group 0 (n = 28) A
Group 1–10 (n = 27) B
Group 11–20 (n = 31) C
Group 21–30 (n = 27) D
Group 31–40 (n = 32) E
Group >40 (n = 34) F
Between-group comparisons
BasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangePPost hoc analysis
Energy expenditure (METs · h-1 · week-10.3 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.3 (0.0–1.1) 0.3 ± 0.2 6.30 ± 0.4 (5.7–7.2)* 0.4 ± 0.2 17.1 ± 0.4 (16–17.9) 0.7 ± 0.3 27.0 ± 0.5 (25.9–28) 0.9 ± 0.4 37.5 ± 0.5 (36–38.5) 0.8 ± 0.3 58.3 ± 1.8 (54.3–62) 0.000 All groups differ 
Weight (kg) 80.8 ± 2.0 0.8 ± 0.5 (−0.3 to 1.9) 82.0 ± 2.6 0.6 ± 0.7 (−0.8 to 1.9) 81.3 ± 2.9 0.1 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.8) 81.9 ± 2.2 −2.2 ± 0.2 (−2.6 to −1.7) 83.1 ± 1.7 −3.0 ± 0.3 (−3.6 to −2.4) 79.8 ± 2.0 −3.2 ± 0.3 (−3.7 to −2.7) 0.268 — 
BMI (kg/m2) 29.5 ± 0.6 0.3 ± 0.2 (−0.1 to 0.7) 29.1 ± 0.6 0.3 ± 0.3 (−0.3 to 0.8) 28.9 ± 0.4 0.03 ± 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.3) 29.3 ± 0.4 −0.8 ± 0.1 (−0.9 to −0.6) 29.4 ± 0.5 −1.0 ± 0.1 (−1.2 to −0.8) 29.7 ± 0.4 −1.2 ± 0.1 (−1.4 to −1.0) 0.256 — 
Waist circumference (cm) 97.3 ± 1.6 1.0 ± 0.7 (−0.5 to 2.5) 99.7 ± 2.4 1.0 ± 0.9 (−0.8 to 2.9) 100.6 ± 1.8 −0.9 ± 0.4 (−1.7 to −0.1) 100.0 ± 2.2 −3.8 ± 0.3 (−4.4 to −3.1) 100.1 ± 1.8 −5.5 ± 0.4 (−6.3 to −4.7) 97.3 ± 1.6 −7.1 ± 0.5 (−8.1 to −6.2) 0.000 ABC vs. F 
FPG (mmol/l) 9.1 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 2.9 (−7.5 to 4.3) 9.4 ± 0.5 −0.02 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.6) 9.2 ± 0.3 −0.39 ± 0.2 (−0.8 to 0.1) 9.1 ± 0.2 −1.2 ± 0.2 (−1.7 to −0.7) 9.3 ± 0.3 −1.6 ± 0.3 (−2.0 to −1.2) 8.8 ± 0.2 −1.5 ± 0.1 (−1.8 to −1.3) 0.000 A vs. F, B vs. DEF, C vs. EF 
HbA1c (%) 7.3 ± 0.2 0.03 ± 0.01 (−0.1 to 0.2) 7.6 ± 0.3 −0.06 ± 0.09 (−0.2 to 0.1) 7.7 ± 0.2 −0.4 ± 0.1 (−0.6 to −0.3) 7.6 ± 0.2 −0.9 ± 0.07 (−1.0 to −0.7) 7.7 ± 0.2 −1.1 ± 0.1 (−1.3 to −0.9) 7.6 ± 0.2 −1.0 ± 0.1 (−1.2 to −0.9) 0.001 B vs. EF 
Maximum blood pressure (mmHg) 147 ± 2 −1.8 ± 0.9 (−3.6 to 0.1) 145 ± 3 −1.5 ± 0.9 (−3.3 to 0.3) 143 ± 3 −6.4 ± 2.4 (−11 to −1.5)* 143 ± 3 −5.6 ± 2.7 (−11 to −0.1)* 142 ± 3 −6.6 ± 1.0 (−8.6 to −4.4) 146 ± 3 −9.1 ± 0.6 (−10.3 to −8) 0.061 — 
Minimum blood pressure (mmHg) 91 ± 3 −4.6 ± 2.5 (−9.8 to 0.6) 87 ± 1 −2.4 ± 0.9 (−4.3 to −0.5) 85 ± 1 −2.9 ± 1.6 (−4.6 to −1.2) 86 ± 1 −4.8 ± 1.8 (−8.5 to −1.1)* 84 ± 1 −5.3 ± 0.7 (−6.8 to −3.9)* 86 ± 1 −7.1 ± 1.0 (−9.1 to −5.0) 0.000 A vs. EF, B vs. EF 
Heart rate (bpm) 81 ± 1 1.1 ± 0.7 (−0.4 to 2.4) 79 ± 2 0.5 ± 0.9 (−1.4 to 2.4) 80 ± 1 −0.9 ± 0.4 (−1.7 to −0.1) 79 ± 2 −3.8 ± 0.3 (−4.4 to −3.1) 79 ± 2 −5.6 ± 0.4 (−6.3 to −4.7) 76 ± 2 −7.0 ± 0.5 (−8.1 to −6.2) 0.000 A vs. EF, B vs. F, C vs. F 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.7 ± 0.1 −0.1 ± 0.05 (−0.3 to 0.1) 5.5 ± 0.1 −0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to 0.1) 5.6 ± 0.2 −0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.1) 5.4 ± 0.2 −0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.2) 5.5 ± 0.1 −0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1) 5.6 ± 0.2 −0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.2) 0.314 — 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.6 ± 0.1 −0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to 0.3) 3.4 ± 0.2 −0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.5 to 0.1) 3.6 ± 0.2 −0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.1) 3.3 ± 0.2 −0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1)* 3.4 ± 0.1 −0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1)* 3.6 ± 0.2 −0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1) 0.376 — 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.0 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.1) 1.0 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.1) 1.0 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 0.1 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 (0.2 to 0.4)* 1.0 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 0.000 ABC vs. EF 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.3 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) 2.2 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) 2.4 ± 0.1 −0.5 ± 0.1 (−0.7 to −0.2) 2.4 ± 0.1 −0.6 ± 0.1 (−0.8 to −0.5) 2.3 ± 0.1 −0.6 ± 0.1 (−0.8 to −0.5) 2.2 ± 0.1 −0.8 ± 0.1 (−0.9 to −0.6) 0.000 AB vs. CDEF 
10-year CHD risk (%) 24.4 ± 1.9 0.1 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.7) 21.3 ± 1.8 −0.3 ± 0.5 (−1.2 to 0.6) 22.5 ± 1.6 −2.6 ± 0.6 (−3.9 to −1.3) 22.9 ± 1.7 −3.7 ± 0.7 (−5.2 to −2.2) 24.6 ± 1.7 −4.8 ± 1.0 (−6.8 to −2.8) 21.1 ± 1.5 −4.3 ± 1.0 (−6.3 to −2.4)* 0.000 A vs. CDEF 
Group 0 (n = 28) A
Group 1–10 (n = 27) B
Group 11–20 (n = 31) C
Group 21–30 (n = 27) D
Group 31–40 (n = 32) E
Group >40 (n = 34) F
Between-group comparisons
BasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangePPost hoc analysis
Energy expenditure (METs · h-1 · week-10.3 ± 0.2 0.6 ± 0.3 (0.0–1.1) 0.3 ± 0.2 6.30 ± 0.4 (5.7–7.2)* 0.4 ± 0.2 17.1 ± 0.4 (16–17.9) 0.7 ± 0.3 27.0 ± 0.5 (25.9–28) 0.9 ± 0.4 37.5 ± 0.5 (36–38.5) 0.8 ± 0.3 58.3 ± 1.8 (54.3–62) 0.000 All groups differ 
Weight (kg) 80.8 ± 2.0 0.8 ± 0.5 (−0.3 to 1.9) 82.0 ± 2.6 0.6 ± 0.7 (−0.8 to 1.9) 81.3 ± 2.9 0.1 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.8) 81.9 ± 2.2 −2.2 ± 0.2 (−2.6 to −1.7) 83.1 ± 1.7 −3.0 ± 0.3 (−3.6 to −2.4) 79.8 ± 2.0 −3.2 ± 0.3 (−3.7 to −2.7) 0.268 — 
BMI (kg/m2) 29.5 ± 0.6 0.3 ± 0.2 (−0.1 to 0.7) 29.1 ± 0.6 0.3 ± 0.3 (−0.3 to 0.8) 28.9 ± 0.4 0.03 ± 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.3) 29.3 ± 0.4 −0.8 ± 0.1 (−0.9 to −0.6) 29.4 ± 0.5 −1.0 ± 0.1 (−1.2 to −0.8) 29.7 ± 0.4 −1.2 ± 0.1 (−1.4 to −1.0) 0.256 — 
Waist circumference (cm) 97.3 ± 1.6 1.0 ± 0.7 (−0.5 to 2.5) 99.7 ± 2.4 1.0 ± 0.9 (−0.8 to 2.9) 100.6 ± 1.8 −0.9 ± 0.4 (−1.7 to −0.1) 100.0 ± 2.2 −3.8 ± 0.3 (−4.4 to −3.1) 100.1 ± 1.8 −5.5 ± 0.4 (−6.3 to −4.7) 97.3 ± 1.6 −7.1 ± 0.5 (−8.1 to −6.2) 0.000 ABC vs. F 
FPG (mmol/l) 9.1 ± 0.4 1.6 ± 2.9 (−7.5 to 4.3) 9.4 ± 0.5 −0.02 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.6) 9.2 ± 0.3 −0.39 ± 0.2 (−0.8 to 0.1) 9.1 ± 0.2 −1.2 ± 0.2 (−1.7 to −0.7) 9.3 ± 0.3 −1.6 ± 0.3 (−2.0 to −1.2) 8.8 ± 0.2 −1.5 ± 0.1 (−1.8 to −1.3) 0.000 A vs. F, B vs. DEF, C vs. EF 
HbA1c (%) 7.3 ± 0.2 0.03 ± 0.01 (−0.1 to 0.2) 7.6 ± 0.3 −0.06 ± 0.09 (−0.2 to 0.1) 7.7 ± 0.2 −0.4 ± 0.1 (−0.6 to −0.3) 7.6 ± 0.2 −0.9 ± 0.07 (−1.0 to −0.7) 7.7 ± 0.2 −1.1 ± 0.1 (−1.3 to −0.9) 7.6 ± 0.2 −1.0 ± 0.1 (−1.2 to −0.9) 0.001 B vs. EF 
Maximum blood pressure (mmHg) 147 ± 2 −1.8 ± 0.9 (−3.6 to 0.1) 145 ± 3 −1.5 ± 0.9 (−3.3 to 0.3) 143 ± 3 −6.4 ± 2.4 (−11 to −1.5)* 143 ± 3 −5.6 ± 2.7 (−11 to −0.1)* 142 ± 3 −6.6 ± 1.0 (−8.6 to −4.4) 146 ± 3 −9.1 ± 0.6 (−10.3 to −8) 0.061 — 
Minimum blood pressure (mmHg) 91 ± 3 −4.6 ± 2.5 (−9.8 to 0.6) 87 ± 1 −2.4 ± 0.9 (−4.3 to −0.5) 85 ± 1 −2.9 ± 1.6 (−4.6 to −1.2) 86 ± 1 −4.8 ± 1.8 (−8.5 to −1.1)* 84 ± 1 −5.3 ± 0.7 (−6.8 to −3.9)* 86 ± 1 −7.1 ± 1.0 (−9.1 to −5.0) 0.000 A vs. EF, B vs. EF 
Heart rate (bpm) 81 ± 1 1.1 ± 0.7 (−0.4 to 2.4) 79 ± 2 0.5 ± 0.9 (−1.4 to 2.4) 80 ± 1 −0.9 ± 0.4 (−1.7 to −0.1) 79 ± 2 −3.8 ± 0.3 (−4.4 to −3.1) 79 ± 2 −5.6 ± 0.4 (−6.3 to −4.7) 76 ± 2 −7.0 ± 0.5 (−8.1 to −6.2) 0.000 A vs. EF, B vs. F, C vs. F 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.7 ± 0.1 −0.1 ± 0.05 (−0.3 to 0.1) 5.5 ± 0.1 −0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to 0.1) 5.6 ± 0.2 −0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.1) 5.4 ± 0.2 −0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.2) 5.5 ± 0.1 −0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1) 5.6 ± 0.2 −0.3 ± 0.1 (−0.4 to −0.2) 0.314 — 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.6 ± 0.1 −0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to 0.3) 3.4 ± 0.2 −0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.5 to 0.1) 3.6 ± 0.2 −0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.2 to 0.1) 3.3 ± 0.2 −0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1)* 3.4 ± 0.1 −0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1)* 3.6 ± 0.2 −0.2 ± 0.1 (−0.3 to −0.1) 0.376 — 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.0 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.1) 1.0 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.1) 1.0 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) 0.1 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 0.1 ± 0.1 0.3 ± 0.1 (0.2 to 0.4)* 1.0 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 (0.1 to 0.2) 0.000 ABC vs. EF 
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 2.3 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) 2.2 ± 0.1 0.1 ± 0.1 (−0.1 to 0.2) 2.4 ± 0.1 −0.5 ± 0.1 (−0.7 to −0.2) 2.4 ± 0.1 −0.6 ± 0.1 (−0.8 to −0.5) 2.3 ± 0.1 −0.6 ± 0.1 (−0.8 to −0.5) 2.2 ± 0.1 −0.8 ± 0.1 (−0.9 to −0.6) 0.000 AB vs. CDEF 
10-year CHD risk (%) 24.4 ± 1.9 0.1 ± 0.3 (−0.6 to 0.7) 21.3 ± 1.8 −0.3 ± 0.5 (−1.2 to 0.6) 22.5 ± 1.6 −2.6 ± 0.6 (−3.9 to −1.3) 22.9 ± 1.7 −3.7 ± 0.7 (−5.2 to −2.2) 24.6 ± 1.7 −4.8 ± 1.0 (−6.8 to −2.8) 21.1 ± 1.5 −4.3 ± 1.0 (−6.3 to −2.4)* 0.000 A vs. CDEF 

Data are means ± SE and means (95% CI).

*

P < 0.05,

P < 0.01 vs. basal. Between-group comparisons are reported in the last two columns. Significant differences are followed by post hoc results (e.g., ABC vs. F means that groups A, B, and C are not different from each other but they are all different compared with group F).

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