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Table 3—

Effects of physical activity counseling on costs for medical prescriptions, other direct health system costs, direct and indirect social costs, and total costs in 179 type 2 diabetic subjects with different amounts of energy expenditure (METs per hour per week)

Drugs
Other health care
Direct social
Indirect social
Total costs
BasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChange
Group 0 (n = 28) A 1,173 ± 44 393 (111 ± 675)* 1,456 ± 77 123 (−25 ± 271) 14 ± 1.0 10 (−6 ± 26) 1,444 ± 90 302 (51 ± 553)* 4,253 ± 289 828 (224 ± 1,432)* 
Group 1–10 (n = 28) B 1,207 ± 52 206 (−34 ± 446) 1,541 ± 67 −7 (−15 ± 1) 12 ± 0.8 50* (9 ± 91) 1,356 ± 105 −24 (−71 ± 23) 4,116 ± 311 224 (−29 ± 477) 
Group 11–20 (n = 28) C 1,087 ± 43 −196 (−342 ± −50)* 1,384 ± 86 −92 (−191 ± 7) 15 ± 1.2 152 (41 ± 263)* 1,281 ± 68 −250 (−438 ± −62)* 3,767 ± 235 −386 (−663 ± −109)* 
Group 21–30 (n = 28) D 1,085 ± 39 −593 (−1,025 ± −161)* 1,414 ± 59 −296 (−518 ± −74)* 11 ± 0.7 199 (48 ± 350)* 1,491 ± 93 −762 (−1,394 ± −130)* 4,001 ± 280 −1,452 (−2,364 ± −540)* 
Group 31–40 (n = 28) E 1,177 ± 56 −660 (−1,078 ± −242)* 1,543 ± 73 −588 (−1,011 ± −165)* 16 ± 1.2 256 (88 ± 424)* 1,434 ± 73 −909 (−1,551 ± −267)* 4,169 ± 228 −1,902 (−3,217 ± −587)* 
Group >40 (n = 28) F 1,087 ± 45 −579 (−905 ± −253)* 1,645 ± 84 −794 (−1,241 ± −347)* 14 ± 0.9 300 (83 ± 517)* 1,468 ± 80 −997 (−1,601 ± −393)* 4,214 ± 247 −2,070 (−3,325 ± −815)* 
All 179 subjects 1,134 ± 55 −259 (−422 ± −96)* 1,528 ± 73 −298 (−521 ± −75)* 14 ± 1.3 168 (41 ± −269)* 1,412 ± 78 −466 (−809 ± −123)* 4,087 ± 235 −855 (−1,520 ± −190)* 
50% simulation 1,177 ± 63 −101 (−180 ± −6)* 1,580 ± 75 −207 (−362 ± −52)* 14 ± 1 133 (30 ± 236)* 1,440 ± 82 −303 (−539 ± −67)* 4,210 ± 266 −478 (−817 ± −139)* 
33% simulation 1,175 ± 71 77 (−41 ± 195) 1,571 ± 79 −91 (−200 ± 18) 13 ± 1.1 87 (9 ± 165)* 1,411 ± 82 −106 (−191 ± −21)* 4,170 ± 246 −34 (−80 ± 12) 
Between-group comparisons P  <0.001  <0.001  <0.001  <0.001  <0.001 
Post hoc analysis  A vs. CDEF, B vs. CDEF, C vs. E  ABC vs. DEF, D vs. F  AB vs. F, A vs. E  AB vs. DEF, C vs. EF  AB vs. DEF, C vs. EF 
Drugs
Other health care
Direct social
Indirect social
Total costs
BasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChangeBasalChange
Group 0 (n = 28) A 1,173 ± 44 393 (111 ± 675)* 1,456 ± 77 123 (−25 ± 271) 14 ± 1.0 10 (−6 ± 26) 1,444 ± 90 302 (51 ± 553)* 4,253 ± 289 828 (224 ± 1,432)* 
Group 1–10 (n = 28) B 1,207 ± 52 206 (−34 ± 446) 1,541 ± 67 −7 (−15 ± 1) 12 ± 0.8 50* (9 ± 91) 1,356 ± 105 −24 (−71 ± 23) 4,116 ± 311 224 (−29 ± 477) 
Group 11–20 (n = 28) C 1,087 ± 43 −196 (−342 ± −50)* 1,384 ± 86 −92 (−191 ± 7) 15 ± 1.2 152 (41 ± 263)* 1,281 ± 68 −250 (−438 ± −62)* 3,767 ± 235 −386 (−663 ± −109)* 
Group 21–30 (n = 28) D 1,085 ± 39 −593 (−1,025 ± −161)* 1,414 ± 59 −296 (−518 ± −74)* 11 ± 0.7 199 (48 ± 350)* 1,491 ± 93 −762 (−1,394 ± −130)* 4,001 ± 280 −1,452 (−2,364 ± −540)* 
Group 31–40 (n = 28) E 1,177 ± 56 −660 (−1,078 ± −242)* 1,543 ± 73 −588 (−1,011 ± −165)* 16 ± 1.2 256 (88 ± 424)* 1,434 ± 73 −909 (−1,551 ± −267)* 4,169 ± 228 −1,902 (−3,217 ± −587)* 
Group >40 (n = 28) F 1,087 ± 45 −579 (−905 ± −253)* 1,645 ± 84 −794 (−1,241 ± −347)* 14 ± 0.9 300 (83 ± 517)* 1,468 ± 80 −997 (−1,601 ± −393)* 4,214 ± 247 −2,070 (−3,325 ± −815)* 
All 179 subjects 1,134 ± 55 −259 (−422 ± −96)* 1,528 ± 73 −298 (−521 ± −75)* 14 ± 1.3 168 (41 ± −269)* 1,412 ± 78 −466 (−809 ± −123)* 4,087 ± 235 −855 (−1,520 ± −190)* 
50% simulation 1,177 ± 63 −101 (−180 ± −6)* 1,580 ± 75 −207 (−362 ± −52)* 14 ± 1 133 (30 ± 236)* 1,440 ± 82 −303 (−539 ± −67)* 4,210 ± 266 −478 (−817 ± −139)* 
33% simulation 1,175 ± 71 77 (−41 ± 195) 1,571 ± 79 −91 (−200 ± 18) 13 ± 1.1 87 (9 ± 165)* 1,411 ± 82 −106 (−191 ± −21)* 4,170 ± 246 −34 (−80 ± 12) 
Between-group comparisons P  <0.001  <0.001  <0.001  <0.001  <0.001 
Post hoc analysis  A vs. CDEF, B vs. CDEF, C vs. E  ABC vs. DEF, D vs. F  AB vs. F, A vs. E  AB vs. DEF, C vs. EF  AB vs. DEF, C vs. EF 

Data are means ± SE and means (95% CI). Sensitive analysis assumes that instead of 125 of 179 (69%) only 90 of 179 (50%) or 60 of 179 (33%) diabetic subjects achieved the target of the intervention (>10 METs · h−1 · week−1).

*

P < 0.05 vs. basal, costs in U.S. dollars per capita per year. Between-group comparisons are reported in the last two rows. Significant differences are then followed by post hoc results (e.g., A vs. CDEF means that group A is different from groups C–F; CDEF are not different from each other).

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