Skip to Main Content
TABLE 1

Demographic and general medical characteristics of patients and control subjects

CharacteristicControl subjectsType 1 diabetic patients
n (male/female) 40 (16/24) 40 (23/17) 
Mean age (years)* 61.6 ± 5 60.9 ± 6† 
Education level (median) 4 (4–5) 5 (4–6)§ 
Estimated IQ 101.2 ± 14.1 108.1 ± 11.7§ 
BMI (kg/m227.3 ± 5.1 23.7 ± 2.3 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 135.2 ± 18.8 142.0 ± 22.6 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.7 ± 11.1 73.5 ± 9.9§ 
Hypertension (%)* 38 45† 
Atherosclerotic disease (%)*# 20 25†** 
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.7 ± 1.2 0.9 ± 0.5 
Fasting serum cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 1.1 5.3 ± 0.9§ 
Hypercholesterolemia (%)*†† 48 35† 
A1C (%)* 5.5 ± 0.4 7.7 ± 1.0† 
Retrograde A1C (%)*‡‡ — 7.7 ± 0.9† 
CharacteristicControl subjectsType 1 diabetic patients
n (male/female) 40 (16/24) 40 (23/17) 
Mean age (years)* 61.6 ± 5 60.9 ± 6† 
Education level (median) 4 (4–5) 5 (4–6)§ 
Estimated IQ 101.2 ± 14.1 108.1 ± 11.7§ 
BMI (kg/m227.3 ± 5.1 23.7 ± 2.3 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 135.2 ± 18.8 142.0 ± 22.6 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79.7 ± 11.1 73.5 ± 9.9§ 
Hypertension (%)* 38 45† 
Atherosclerotic disease (%)*# 20 25†** 
Fasting triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.7 ± 1.2 0.9 ± 0.5 
Fasting serum cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.9 ± 1.1 5.3 ± 0.9§ 
Hypercholesterolemia (%)*†† 48 35† 
A1C (%)* 5.5 ± 0.4 7.7 ± 1.0† 
Retrograde A1C (%)*‡‡ — 7.7 ± 0.9† 

Data are given as means ± SD or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated.

§

P < 0.05;

P < 0.001.

*

Entered as explanatory variable in exploratory regression analyses with cognition or MRI as dependent variables within the type 1 diabetic group; statistically significant association with any cognitive domain scores are indicated as

**

P < 0.05; statistically significant association with any MRI outcome measure are indicated as **P < 0.05. Details are provided in results.

Education level was recorded using seven categories that can be transferred to years of education: <6, 6–7, 8–9, 10–11, 12–18, and >18, respectively.

Hypertension is defined as an average systolic blood pressure ≥160 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥95 mmHg and/or self-reported use of blood pressure–lowering drugs.

#

Atherosclerotic disease is defined as suffering from self-reported angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, or intermittent claudication.

††

Hypercholesterolemia is defined as a fasting cholesterol >6.2 mmol/l and/or self-reported use of cholesterol lowering drugs.

‡‡

Retrograde data (up to 5 years, mean 3.9 years, mean intra-individual variation coefficient 4.1%) on A1C levels were obtained through the case records.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal