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TABLE 2

Diabetic characteristics of type 1 diabetic patients

CharacteristicType 1 diabetic patients
Duration of diabetes (years)* 34.0 ± 12.8 
Use of insulin pump* 48 
Disease onset before age 18 years* 33 
Previous severe hypoglycemic event requiring assistance* 75 
Hypoglycemic event leading to seizure or unconsciousness*§ 65 
Retinopathy 58 
Retinopathy with laser treatment 65 
Neuropathy 45 
Diabetic foot 
Microvascular complications* 70 
CharacteristicType 1 diabetic patients
Duration of diabetes (years)* 34.0 ± 12.8 
Use of insulin pump* 48 
Disease onset before age 18 years* 33 
Previous severe hypoglycemic event requiring assistance* 75 
Hypoglycemic event leading to seizure or unconsciousness*§ 65 
Retinopathy 58 
Retinopathy with laser treatment 65 
Neuropathy 45 
Diabetic foot 
Microvascular complications* 70 

Data are means ± SD or percent.

*

Entered as explanatory variable in exploratory regression analyses with cognition or MRI as dependent variables within the type 1 diabetic group; statistically significant association with any cognitive domain scores are indicated as

P < 0.05; statistically significant association with any MRI outcome measure are indicated as

P < 0.05. Details are provided in results.

§

In the regression analyses, the group that experienced hypoglycemia with seizure or unconsciousness was compared with the group that never experienced any severe hypoglycemic event.

Microvascular complications were entered in the exploratory regression analyses in two ways: as a dichotomous variable defined as the absence or presence of retinopathy or neuropathy or as a sumscore (range 0–3) in which 1 point was given for neuropathy, 1 point for retinopathy without laser treatment, or 2 points for retinopathy with laser treatment. Neither analysis showed significant associations with MRI or cognition.

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