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Table 1—

Physiological outcomes

GroupAssessments
Significance of MANCOVA*
Baseline6 monthsIndividual (6 months)Overall (6 months)
HbA1c and serum lipids     0.019 
 HbA1c (%) MLP (Tx) 7.43 ± 1.30 7.07 ± 1.11 0.000  
 UC (control) 7.40 ± 1.48 7.38 ± 1.33   
 Triglycerides (mg/dl) MLP (Tx) 202.38 ± 149.06 176.82 ± 113.98 0.982  
 UC (control) 171.59 ± 110.56 157.93 ± 88.82   
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl) MLP (Tx) 191.57 ± 37.84 187.61 ± 35.60 0.963  
 UC (control) 181.77 ± 36.69 180.72 ± 39.73   
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) MLP (Tx) 43.12 ± 11.06 43.49 ± 10.14 0.823  
 UC (control) 44.05 ± 12.69 43.46 ± 11.99   
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) MLP (Tx) 118.64 ± 31.97 118.43 ± 30.64 0.987  
 UC (control) 113.33 ± 30.78 114.22 ± 32.86   
BMI/waist-to-hip ratio     0.015 
 BMI (kg/m2MLP (Tx) 35.34 ± 7.93 34.97 ± 7.85 0.009  
 UC (control) 34.87 ± 8.20 35.07 ± 8.48   
 Waist-to-hip ratio MLP (Tx) 0.91 ± .07 0.90 ± .07 0.318  
 UC (control) 0.90 ± .08 0.88 ± .08   
Quality of life     0.021 
 PAID social summary (score) MLP (Tx) 12.96 ± 5.22 11.63 ± 4.33 0.871  
 UC (control) 12.55 ± 5.05 11.31 ± 4.83   
 PAID self-care summary score MLP (Tx) 19.14 ± 5.53 15.04 ± 4.68 0.005  
 UC (control) 18.03 ± 5.80 15.94 ± 5.33   
 MOS-12 physical health (score) MLP (Tx) 40.28 ± 10.60 40.68 ± 11.34 0.601  
 UC (control) 40.46 ± 12.41 41.32 ± 12.62   
 MOS-12 mental health (score) MLP (Tx) 46.60 ± 9.30 46.67 ± 9.71 0.438  
 UC (control) 46.99 ± 9.27 46.13 ± 9.45   
Blood pressure     0.069 
 Average systolic (mmHg) MLP (Tx) 136.06 ± 13.91 134.21 ± 14.30 0.483  
 UC (control) 134.01 ± 14.17 131.83 ± 14.63   
 Average diastolic (mmHg) MLP (Tx) 79.29 ± 9.49 77.15 ± 8.77 0.204  
 UC (control) 77.38 ± 9.20 76.94 ± 8.33   
Plasma fatty acids     0.059 
 18:2 (n-6) (relative weight percent) MLP (Tx) 23.88 ± 4.83 25.99 ± 3.91 0.573  
 UC (control) 25.20 ± 5.87 26.80 ± 5.35   
 20:5 (n-3) (relative weight percent) MLP (Tx) 0.47 ± .29 0.68 ± .40 0.022  
 UC (control) 0.51 ± .37 0.56 ± .26   
 22:6 (n-3) (relative weight percent) MLP (Tx) 0.97 ± .38 1.14 ± .47 0.864  
 UC (control) 1.00 ± .41 1.13 ± .47   
Flexibility     0.095 
 Sit-and-reach (percentile) MLP (Tx) 31.91 ± 23.47 34.21 ± 27.51 0.093  
 UC (control) 32.30 ± 25.73 29.66 ± 26.80   
 Range of motion (percentile) MLP (Tx) 14.01 ± 23.10 14.23 ± 24.17 0.136  
 UC (control) 11.16 ± 22.10 9.45 ± 19.88   
GroupAssessments
Significance of MANCOVA*
Baseline6 monthsIndividual (6 months)Overall (6 months)
HbA1c and serum lipids     0.019 
 HbA1c (%) MLP (Tx) 7.43 ± 1.30 7.07 ± 1.11 0.000  
 UC (control) 7.40 ± 1.48 7.38 ± 1.33   
 Triglycerides (mg/dl) MLP (Tx) 202.38 ± 149.06 176.82 ± 113.98 0.982  
 UC (control) 171.59 ± 110.56 157.93 ± 88.82   
 Total cholesterol (mg/dl) MLP (Tx) 191.57 ± 37.84 187.61 ± 35.60 0.963  
 UC (control) 181.77 ± 36.69 180.72 ± 39.73   
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl) MLP (Tx) 43.12 ± 11.06 43.49 ± 10.14 0.823  
 UC (control) 44.05 ± 12.69 43.46 ± 11.99   
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) MLP (Tx) 118.64 ± 31.97 118.43 ± 30.64 0.987  
 UC (control) 113.33 ± 30.78 114.22 ± 32.86   
BMI/waist-to-hip ratio     0.015 
 BMI (kg/m2MLP (Tx) 35.34 ± 7.93 34.97 ± 7.85 0.009  
 UC (control) 34.87 ± 8.20 35.07 ± 8.48   
 Waist-to-hip ratio MLP (Tx) 0.91 ± .07 0.90 ± .07 0.318  
 UC (control) 0.90 ± .08 0.88 ± .08   
Quality of life     0.021 
 PAID social summary (score) MLP (Tx) 12.96 ± 5.22 11.63 ± 4.33 0.871  
 UC (control) 12.55 ± 5.05 11.31 ± 4.83   
 PAID self-care summary score MLP (Tx) 19.14 ± 5.53 15.04 ± 4.68 0.005  
 UC (control) 18.03 ± 5.80 15.94 ± 5.33   
 MOS-12 physical health (score) MLP (Tx) 40.28 ± 10.60 40.68 ± 11.34 0.601  
 UC (control) 40.46 ± 12.41 41.32 ± 12.62   
 MOS-12 mental health (score) MLP (Tx) 46.60 ± 9.30 46.67 ± 9.71 0.438  
 UC (control) 46.99 ± 9.27 46.13 ± 9.45   
Blood pressure     0.069 
 Average systolic (mmHg) MLP (Tx) 136.06 ± 13.91 134.21 ± 14.30 0.483  
 UC (control) 134.01 ± 14.17 131.83 ± 14.63   
 Average diastolic (mmHg) MLP (Tx) 79.29 ± 9.49 77.15 ± 8.77 0.204  
 UC (control) 77.38 ± 9.20 76.94 ± 8.33   
Plasma fatty acids     0.059 
 18:2 (n-6) (relative weight percent) MLP (Tx) 23.88 ± 4.83 25.99 ± 3.91 0.573  
 UC (control) 25.20 ± 5.87 26.80 ± 5.35   
 20:5 (n-3) (relative weight percent) MLP (Tx) 0.47 ± .29 0.68 ± .40 0.022  
 UC (control) 0.51 ± .37 0.56 ± .26   
 22:6 (n-3) (relative weight percent) MLP (Tx) 0.97 ± .38 1.14 ± .47 0.864  
 UC (control) 1.00 ± .41 1.13 ± .47   
Flexibility     0.095 
 Sit-and-reach (percentile) MLP (Tx) 31.91 ± 23.47 34.21 ± 27.51 0.093  
 UC (control) 32.30 ± 25.73 29.66 ± 26.80   
 Range of motion (percentile) MLP (Tx) 14.01 ± 23.10 14.23 ± 24.17 0.136  
 UC (control) 11.16 ± 22.10 9.45 ± 19.88   

Data are means ± SD.

*

Significance of two-tailed MANCOVA comparing MLP (treatment) and UC (control) nonadjusted follow-up scores, covarying out the effects of baseline scores and social desirability. Tx, treatment.

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