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Table 1—

Demographic and clinical characteristics of veterans treated for diabetes

CharacteristicTotal (N = 429,918)Caucasian (n = 241,548; 56.2%)African American (n = 65,985; 15.3%)Hispanic (n = 26,544; 6.2%)Asian (n = 2,046; 0.5%)Native American (n = 1,747; 0.4%)Race unknown (n = 92,048; 21.4%)
Age (years) 64.1 ± 11.4 65.3 ± 10.9 6.3 ± 12.4 63.7 ± 11.1 63.0 ± 11.6* 60.3 ± 11.6* 63.4 ± 11.7* 
Age category (years)        
 <40 26,628 (6.2) 10,648 (4.4) 7,248 (11.0) 1,614 (6.1) 168 (8.2)* 141 (8.1)* 6,809 (7.4)* 
 40–64 165,624 (38.5) 87,891 (36.6) 28,366 (43.0) 10,726 (40.4) 869 (42.5) 919 (52.6) 36,853 (40.0) 
 65–74 154,498 (35.9) 91,440 (37.9) 20,372 (30.9) 9,727 (36.6) 586 (28.6) 470 (26.9) 31,903 (34.7) 
 75+ 83,168 (19.3) 51,569 (21.3) 9,999 (15.2) 4,477 (16.9) 423 (20.7) 217 (12.4) 16,483 (17.9) 
Male (%) 97.4 97.4 97.5 98.7 97.7 96.5* 97.1* 
Non-service connected 252,946 (58.8) 137,632 (57.0) 40,158 (60.9) 16,482 (62.1) 722 (35.3)* 937 (53.6)* 57,015 (61.9)* 
Number of service-connected disabilities 2.3 ± 2.3 2.3 ± 2.3 2.0 ± 2.2 1.8 ± 2.1 3.3 ± 2.5* 2.3 ± 2.3 2.5 ± 2.3* 
Region (%)        
 Northeast 21.4 22.6 22.6 8.0 6.3* 5.6* 21.8* 
 South 37.9 35.5 45.0 60.2 6.4 26.0 33.8 
 Midwest 21.4 23.5 20.8 3.5 4.1 24.0 22.0 
 West 19.3 18.5 11.5 28.3 83.2 44.2 22.4 
Health care delivery        
 Hospitalizations (days) 17.1 ± 98.9 16.9 ± 106.9 18.7 ± 93.0* 15.2 ± 27.9 12.9 ± 25.3 12.9 ± 28.4 11.0 ± 22.3* 
 Hospitalizations (number) 1.6 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.4 1.2 ± 0.6* 
 Seen by primary care 11.5 57.2 (70.9) 18.7 (67.6) 5.9 (79.0) 0.7 (75.9)* 0.5 (74.3) 17.1 (69.7)* 
 Total number of visits 17.8 ± 20.3 19.0 ± 19.8 22.8 ± 27.9 19.0 ± 20.6 20.8 ± 23.4* 20.0 ± 24.0 11.6 ± 11.9* 
 Eye examination 206,179 (48.0) 121,937 (50.5) 33,931 (51.4) 11,441 (43.1) 1089 (53.2)* 831 (47.6)* 36,950 (40.1)* 
Comorbid condition        
 Hypertension 289,334 (67.3) 162,512 (67.3) 49,902 (75.6) 17,474 (65.8) 1,380 (67.4) 1,028 (58.8)* 57,031 (62.0)* 
 Cardiovascular disease 174,934 (40.7) 115,118 (47.7) 21,518 (32.6) 8,756 (33.0) 731 (35.7)* 606 (34.7)* 28,202 (30.6)* 
 Stroke 31,767 (7.4) 20,430 (8.5) 5,581 (8.5) 2,096 (7.9) 141 (6.9)* 108 (6.2)* 3,441 (3.7)* 
 Cancer 49,546 (11.5) 32,309 (13.4) 8,221 (12.5) 2,371 (8.9) 164 (8.0)* 123 (7.0)* 6,376 (6.9)* 
 COPD 65,201 (15.2) 46,285 (19.2) 8,235 (12.5) 2,053 (7.7) 186 (9.1)* 208 (11.9)* 8,234 (8.9)* 
 Depression 51,388 (12.0) 33,282 (13.8) 7,198 (10.9) 3,599 (13.6) 207 (10.1)* 267 (15.3) 6,835 (7.4)* 
 Renal disease 44,671 (10.4) 26,212 (10.8) 9,699 (14.7) 2,716 (10.2) 263 (12.9)* 222 (12.7)* 4,650 (5.1)* 
 Diabetic eye disease 37,080 (8.6) 22,123 (9.2) 6,364 (9.6) 2,060 (7.8) 265 (13.0)* 181 (10.4) 6,087 (6.6)* 
Mortality (%) 6.0 7.3 6.4 5.6 5.4* 7.4 2.6* 
CharacteristicTotal (N = 429,918)Caucasian (n = 241,548; 56.2%)African American (n = 65,985; 15.3%)Hispanic (n = 26,544; 6.2%)Asian (n = 2,046; 0.5%)Native American (n = 1,747; 0.4%)Race unknown (n = 92,048; 21.4%)
Age (years) 64.1 ± 11.4 65.3 ± 10.9 6.3 ± 12.4 63.7 ± 11.1 63.0 ± 11.6* 60.3 ± 11.6* 63.4 ± 11.7* 
Age category (years)        
 <40 26,628 (6.2) 10,648 (4.4) 7,248 (11.0) 1,614 (6.1) 168 (8.2)* 141 (8.1)* 6,809 (7.4)* 
 40–64 165,624 (38.5) 87,891 (36.6) 28,366 (43.0) 10,726 (40.4) 869 (42.5) 919 (52.6) 36,853 (40.0) 
 65–74 154,498 (35.9) 91,440 (37.9) 20,372 (30.9) 9,727 (36.6) 586 (28.6) 470 (26.9) 31,903 (34.7) 
 75+ 83,168 (19.3) 51,569 (21.3) 9,999 (15.2) 4,477 (16.9) 423 (20.7) 217 (12.4) 16,483 (17.9) 
Male (%) 97.4 97.4 97.5 98.7 97.7 96.5* 97.1* 
Non-service connected 252,946 (58.8) 137,632 (57.0) 40,158 (60.9) 16,482 (62.1) 722 (35.3)* 937 (53.6)* 57,015 (61.9)* 
Number of service-connected disabilities 2.3 ± 2.3 2.3 ± 2.3 2.0 ± 2.2 1.8 ± 2.1 3.3 ± 2.5* 2.3 ± 2.3 2.5 ± 2.3* 
Region (%)        
 Northeast 21.4 22.6 22.6 8.0 6.3* 5.6* 21.8* 
 South 37.9 35.5 45.0 60.2 6.4 26.0 33.8 
 Midwest 21.4 23.5 20.8 3.5 4.1 24.0 22.0 
 West 19.3 18.5 11.5 28.3 83.2 44.2 22.4 
Health care delivery        
 Hospitalizations (days) 17.1 ± 98.9 16.9 ± 106.9 18.7 ± 93.0* 15.2 ± 27.9 12.9 ± 25.3 12.9 ± 28.4 11.0 ± 22.3* 
 Hospitalizations (number) 1.6 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.1 1.6 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.1 1.7 ± 1.4 1.2 ± 0.6* 
 Seen by primary care 11.5 57.2 (70.9) 18.7 (67.6) 5.9 (79.0) 0.7 (75.9)* 0.5 (74.3) 17.1 (69.7)* 
 Total number of visits 17.8 ± 20.3 19.0 ± 19.8 22.8 ± 27.9 19.0 ± 20.6 20.8 ± 23.4* 20.0 ± 24.0 11.6 ± 11.9* 
 Eye examination 206,179 (48.0) 121,937 (50.5) 33,931 (51.4) 11,441 (43.1) 1089 (53.2)* 831 (47.6)* 36,950 (40.1)* 
Comorbid condition        
 Hypertension 289,334 (67.3) 162,512 (67.3) 49,902 (75.6) 17,474 (65.8) 1,380 (67.4) 1,028 (58.8)* 57,031 (62.0)* 
 Cardiovascular disease 174,934 (40.7) 115,118 (47.7) 21,518 (32.6) 8,756 (33.0) 731 (35.7)* 606 (34.7)* 28,202 (30.6)* 
 Stroke 31,767 (7.4) 20,430 (8.5) 5,581 (8.5) 2,096 (7.9) 141 (6.9)* 108 (6.2)* 3,441 (3.7)* 
 Cancer 49,546 (11.5) 32,309 (13.4) 8,221 (12.5) 2,371 (8.9) 164 (8.0)* 123 (7.0)* 6,376 (6.9)* 
 COPD 65,201 (15.2) 46,285 (19.2) 8,235 (12.5) 2,053 (7.7) 186 (9.1)* 208 (11.9)* 8,234 (8.9)* 
 Depression 51,388 (12.0) 33,282 (13.8) 7,198 (10.9) 3,599 (13.6) 207 (10.1)* 267 (15.3) 6,835 (7.4)* 
 Renal disease 44,671 (10.4) 26,212 (10.8) 9,699 (14.7) 2,716 (10.2) 263 (12.9)* 222 (12.7)* 4,650 (5.1)* 
 Diabetic eye disease 37,080 (8.6) 22,123 (9.2) 6,364 (9.6) 2,060 (7.8) 265 (13.0)* 181 (10.4) 6,087 (6.6)* 
Mortality (%) 6.0 7.3 6.4 5.6 5.4* 7.4 2.6* 

Data are means ± SD or n (%).

*

P < 0.01;

P < 0.05 Caucasian compared with the specific minority group. Test for significance: χ2 test for categorical variables and independent Student’s t test for continuous data.

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