Skip to Main Content
Table 2—

Demographic and clinical characteristics of veterans with diabetes and renal disease

CharacteristicCaucasians (n = 26,212; 58.7%)African Americans (n = 9,699; 22.7%)Hispanic (n = 2,716; 6.1%)Asian (n = 263; 0.6%)Native American (n = 222; 0.5%)Other (n = 4,650; 10.4%)
Age (years) 67.5 ± 10.0 65.1 ± 11.2* 66.1 ± 10.2* 66.4 ± 12.9 61.2 ± 10.7* 65.6 ± 11.0* 
Male 98.3 98.6* 99.1* 99.3 96.8 98.3 
Region       
 Northeast 20.0 21.1 8.0* 5.6* 5.9* 19.8* 
 South 35.3 45.7 55.4 5.6 25.7 33.2 
 Midwest 25.0 21.6 4.5 3.7 28.8 23.7 
 West 19.7 11.7 32.1 85.1 39.6 23.3 
Non-service connected 56.2 63.0* 63.1* 36.9* 54.5 61.6* 
Number of service connected disabilities 2.3 ± 2.3 2.0 ± 2.2 1.8 ± 2.3* 3.9 ± 2.6* 2.2 ± 2.4 2.5 ± 2.4* 
Health care delivery       
 Hospitalizations (number) 2.0 ± 1.4 1.9 ± 1.4* 1.9 ± 1.3 2.1 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 1.5 1.4 ± 0.7* 
 Hospitalizations (days) 16.9 ± 106.9 18.7 ± 93.0 17.0 ± 23.3 13.0 ± 20.0 13.0 ± 19.9 16.5 ± 71.7 
 Total number of visits 26.4 ± 23.7 32.3 ± 35.0* 28.0 ± 27.9* 34.6 ± 36.3 27.9 ± 27.8 15.8 ± 14.4* 
 Eye examination 54.1 53.6 49.5* 58.6 50.5 45.6* 
 Seen by general practitioner 71.4 69.9 77.3 76.3 64.1 73.0 
 Seen by diabetes educator 34.6 36.6 27.1 23.6 38.5 32.8 
Comorbid conditions       
 Cardiovascular disease 65.4 51.6* 52.7 56.0* 51.8* 44.0* 
 Stroke 13.8 12.8 13.1 14.2 9.9 5.9* 
 Hypertension 80.4 88.2* 81.5 80.2 74.8 77.2* 
 COPD 26.2 18.1* 11.3* 14.6* 18.0 12.3* 
Renal disease       
 Diabetic ESRD 36.2 46.8 46.4 52.6* 47.3* 37.6* 
 Diabetic nephropathy 18.0 15.7 13.7 11.6 21.2 17.1 
 Hypertension 3.0 3.8 1.7 2.6 1.4 2.3 
 Acute renal failure 4.4 4.8 4.5 4.5 5.4 2.2 
Eye disease       
 Background retinopathy 17.5 17.6 19.0 19.4 18.9 12.7* 
 Eye manifestations of diabetes 16.2 16.5 15.1 19.8 21.2 11.6* 
 Blindness 5.0 6.1* 7.4* 5.6 6.3 3.3* 
 Retinal detachment 1.3 1.8* 1.8 3.4 1.4 0.8 
Unadjusted mortality 18.1 15.9* 17.2 16.4 19.4 6.5* 
CharacteristicCaucasians (n = 26,212; 58.7%)African Americans (n = 9,699; 22.7%)Hispanic (n = 2,716; 6.1%)Asian (n = 263; 0.6%)Native American (n = 222; 0.5%)Other (n = 4,650; 10.4%)
Age (years) 67.5 ± 10.0 65.1 ± 11.2* 66.1 ± 10.2* 66.4 ± 12.9 61.2 ± 10.7* 65.6 ± 11.0* 
Male 98.3 98.6* 99.1* 99.3 96.8 98.3 
Region       
 Northeast 20.0 21.1 8.0* 5.6* 5.9* 19.8* 
 South 35.3 45.7 55.4 5.6 25.7 33.2 
 Midwest 25.0 21.6 4.5 3.7 28.8 23.7 
 West 19.7 11.7 32.1 85.1 39.6 23.3 
Non-service connected 56.2 63.0* 63.1* 36.9* 54.5 61.6* 
Number of service connected disabilities 2.3 ± 2.3 2.0 ± 2.2 1.8 ± 2.3* 3.9 ± 2.6* 2.2 ± 2.4 2.5 ± 2.4* 
Health care delivery       
 Hospitalizations (number) 2.0 ± 1.4 1.9 ± 1.4* 1.9 ± 1.3 2.1 ± 1.4 2.1 ± 1.5 1.4 ± 0.7* 
 Hospitalizations (days) 16.9 ± 106.9 18.7 ± 93.0 17.0 ± 23.3 13.0 ± 20.0 13.0 ± 19.9 16.5 ± 71.7 
 Total number of visits 26.4 ± 23.7 32.3 ± 35.0* 28.0 ± 27.9* 34.6 ± 36.3 27.9 ± 27.8 15.8 ± 14.4* 
 Eye examination 54.1 53.6 49.5* 58.6 50.5 45.6* 
 Seen by general practitioner 71.4 69.9 77.3 76.3 64.1 73.0 
 Seen by diabetes educator 34.6 36.6 27.1 23.6 38.5 32.8 
Comorbid conditions       
 Cardiovascular disease 65.4 51.6* 52.7 56.0* 51.8* 44.0* 
 Stroke 13.8 12.8 13.1 14.2 9.9 5.9* 
 Hypertension 80.4 88.2* 81.5 80.2 74.8 77.2* 
 COPD 26.2 18.1* 11.3* 14.6* 18.0 12.3* 
Renal disease       
 Diabetic ESRD 36.2 46.8 46.4 52.6* 47.3* 37.6* 
 Diabetic nephropathy 18.0 15.7 13.7 11.6 21.2 17.1 
 Hypertension 3.0 3.8 1.7 2.6 1.4 2.3 
 Acute renal failure 4.4 4.8 4.5 4.5 5.4 2.2 
Eye disease       
 Background retinopathy 17.5 17.6 19.0 19.4 18.9 12.7* 
 Eye manifestations of diabetes 16.2 16.5 15.1 19.8 21.2 11.6* 
 Blindness 5.0 6.1* 7.4* 5.6 6.3 3.3* 
 Retinal detachment 1.3 1.8* 1.8 3.4 1.4 0.8 
Unadjusted mortality 18.1 15.9* 17.2 16.4 19.4 6.5* 

Data are means ± SD or %.

*

P < 0.01;

P < 0.05 Caucasian compared with the specific minority group;

patients with diabetic nephropathy not yet on dialysis. χ2 test for categorical variables, independent t test for continuous data.

Close Modal

or Create an Account

Close Modal
Close Modal