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Table 1—

Clinical and biochemical parameters of Chinese type 2 diabetic patients categorized according to their status of nephropathy and retinopathy.

No nephropathyNephropathyP valueAdjusted P value (for age and duration of disease)No retinopathyRetinopathyP valueAdjusted P value (for age and duration of disease)
n 458 280   551 187   
Sex (M/F) 178/280 129/151   229/322 78/109   
Age (years) 52.3 ± 12.6 60.8 ± 11.1 <0.001  53.4 ± 13.0 62.0 ± 9.6 <0.001  
Duration of diabetes (years) 4.2 ± 4.7 8.1 ± 6.3 <0.001  4.4 ± 4.6 9.4 ± 6.9 <0.001  
BMI (kg/m224.5 ± 4.1 25.2 ± 3.9 0.459 0.079 24.8 ± 4.1 23.9 ± 3.7 0.007 0.04 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.87 ± 0.1 0.89 ± 0.08 0.004 0.153 0.88 ± 0.08 0.89 ± 0.13 0.133 0.916 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 129 ± 21 145 ± 22 <0.001 <0.001 131 ± 21 147 ± 25 <0.001 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79 ± 11 82 ± 13 <0.001 <0.001 80 ± 11 82 ± 14 0.01 0.029 
HbA1c (%) 7.7 ± 1.9 8.4 ± 2.2 <0.001 0.002 7.7 ± 1.9 8.8 ± 2.2 <0.001 <0.001 
FPG (mmol/l) 8.5 ± 3.5 9.5 ± 4.4 <0.001 0.006 8.4 ± 3.4 10.2 ± 4.9 <0.001 <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 1.2 5.8 ± 1.4 <0.001 <0.001 5.5 ± 1.2 5.7 ± 1.4 0.019 0.106 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.31 ± 0.36 1.18 ± 0.37 <0.001 <0.001 1.27 ± 0.37 1.24 ± 0.37 0.337 0.638 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.28 ± 1.14 3.29 ± 1.56 0.963 0.643 3.24 ± 1.27 3.40 ± 1.43 0.169 0.331 
Triglyceride (mmol/l)* 1.29 ×/÷ 1.82 1.82 ×/÷ 1.91 <0.001 <0.001 1.41 ×/÷ 1.91 1.55 ×/÷ 1.91 0.185 0.823 
Plasma creatinine (μmol/l) 68 ± 16 116 ± 84 <0.001 <0.001 77 ± 36 114 ± 92 <0.001 <0.001 
Spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) 1.5 ×/÷ 25. 26.9 ×/÷ 4.7 <0.001 <0.001 2.7 ×/÷ 4.7 12.3 ×/÷ 7.6 <0.001 <0.001 
4-h AER (μg/min)* 6.9 ×/÷ 1.8 213.8 ×/÷ 4.8 <0.001 <0.001 17.0 ×/÷ 5.5 74.1 ×/÷ 9.6 <0.001 <0.001 
Nephropathy (%) 100.0   28.9 64.7 <0.001 <0.001 
Retinopathy (%) 14.4 43.2 <0.001 <0.001 100.0   
Cardiovascular events (%) 3.1 11.1 <0.001 0.017 3.3 14.4 <0.001 0.001 
No nephropathyNephropathyP valueAdjusted P value (for age and duration of disease)No retinopathyRetinopathyP valueAdjusted P value (for age and duration of disease)
n 458 280   551 187   
Sex (M/F) 178/280 129/151   229/322 78/109   
Age (years) 52.3 ± 12.6 60.8 ± 11.1 <0.001  53.4 ± 13.0 62.0 ± 9.6 <0.001  
Duration of diabetes (years) 4.2 ± 4.7 8.1 ± 6.3 <0.001  4.4 ± 4.6 9.4 ± 6.9 <0.001  
BMI (kg/m224.5 ± 4.1 25.2 ± 3.9 0.459 0.079 24.8 ± 4.1 23.9 ± 3.7 0.007 0.04 
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.87 ± 0.1 0.89 ± 0.08 0.004 0.153 0.88 ± 0.08 0.89 ± 0.13 0.133 0.916 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 129 ± 21 145 ± 22 <0.001 <0.001 131 ± 21 147 ± 25 <0.001 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79 ± 11 82 ± 13 <0.001 <0.001 80 ± 11 82 ± 14 0.01 0.029 
HbA1c (%) 7.7 ± 1.9 8.4 ± 2.2 <0.001 0.002 7.7 ± 1.9 8.8 ± 2.2 <0.001 <0.001 
FPG (mmol/l) 8.5 ± 3.5 9.5 ± 4.4 <0.001 0.006 8.4 ± 3.4 10.2 ± 4.9 <0.001 <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 5.4 ± 1.2 5.8 ± 1.4 <0.001 <0.001 5.5 ± 1.2 5.7 ± 1.4 0.019 0.106 
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.31 ± 0.36 1.18 ± 0.37 <0.001 <0.001 1.27 ± 0.37 1.24 ± 0.37 0.337 0.638 
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.28 ± 1.14 3.29 ± 1.56 0.963 0.643 3.24 ± 1.27 3.40 ± 1.43 0.169 0.331 
Triglyceride (mmol/l)* 1.29 ×/÷ 1.82 1.82 ×/÷ 1.91 <0.001 <0.001 1.41 ×/÷ 1.91 1.55 ×/÷ 1.91 0.185 0.823 
Plasma creatinine (μmol/l) 68 ± 16 116 ± 84 <0.001 <0.001 77 ± 36 114 ± 92 <0.001 <0.001 
Spot urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol) 1.5 ×/÷ 25. 26.9 ×/÷ 4.7 <0.001 <0.001 2.7 ×/÷ 4.7 12.3 ×/÷ 7.6 <0.001 <0.001 
4-h AER (μg/min)* 6.9 ×/÷ 1.8 213.8 ×/÷ 4.8 <0.001 <0.001 17.0 ×/÷ 5.5 74.1 ×/÷ 9.6 <0.001 <0.001 
Nephropathy (%) 100.0   28.9 64.7 <0.001 <0.001 
Retinopathy (%) 14.4 43.2 <0.001 <0.001 100.0   
Cardiovascular events (%) 3.1 11.1 <0.001 0.017 3.3 14.4 <0.001 0.001 

Data are expressed as mean ± SD.

*

Geometric mean ×/÷ anti–log SD. Nephropathy was defined by one timed (4- or 24-h) AER ≥ 20 μg/min and a spot ACR ≥3.5 mg/mmol after excluding urinary tract infection. Cardiovascular events were defined as the presence of ischemic heart disease, stroke, heart failure, or peripheral vascular disease.

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