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Table 2—

Genotype and allele frequencies of the 5′-(CA)n and promoter C/T polymorphisms of the aldose reductase gene in Chinese type 2 diabetic patients classified according to the presence or absence of nephropathy or retinopathy

No nephropathyNephropathyNo retinopathyRetinopathy
n 458 280 551 187 
Genotype frequency (%)     
 x/x, x/z+6, z+6/z+6 91.5/8.1/0.4 93.2/6.8/0 90.9/8.9/0.2 95.7/3.7/0.5* 
 x/x, x/z+4, z+2/z+4 86.9/12.4/0.7 88.2/11.4/0.4 86.2/13.1/0.7 90.9/9.1/0 
 x/x, x/z+2, z+2/z+2 48.9/41.9/9.2 49.6/41.4/8.9 50.5/41.4/8.2 45.5/42.8/11.8 
 x/x, x/z, z/z 52.0/41.9/6.1 50.0/40.4/9.6 49.7/43.0/7.3 55.6/36.4/8.0 
 x/x, x/z−2, z−2/z−2 59.8/33.8/6.3 59.3/34.6/6.1 59.9/34.3/5.8 58.8/33.7/7.5 
 x/x, x/z−4, z−4/z−4 89.1/10.9/0 88.2/11.8/0 89.8/10.2/0 85.6/14.4/0 
 CC, CT, TT 65.9/28.4/5.7 60.4/34.3/5.4 65.3/29.6/5.1 59.4/33.7/7.0 
Allele frequency (%)     
 z+6 4.5 3.4 4.7 2.5 
 z+4 6.9 6.1 7.3 4.6 
 z+2 30.2 29.7 28.8 33.1 
 Z 27.1 30.0 28.8 26.2 
 z−2 23.3 23.4 23.0 24.4 
 z−4 5.5 5.9 5.1 7.2 
 X 2.5 1.5 2.3 2.0 
 C 80.1 77.6 80.1 76.3 
 T 19.9 22.5 19.9 23.8 
No nephropathyNephropathyNo retinopathyRetinopathy
n 458 280 551 187 
Genotype frequency (%)     
 x/x, x/z+6, z+6/z+6 91.5/8.1/0.4 93.2/6.8/0 90.9/8.9/0.2 95.7/3.7/0.5* 
 x/x, x/z+4, z+2/z+4 86.9/12.4/0.7 88.2/11.4/0.4 86.2/13.1/0.7 90.9/9.1/0 
 x/x, x/z+2, z+2/z+2 48.9/41.9/9.2 49.6/41.4/8.9 50.5/41.4/8.2 45.5/42.8/11.8 
 x/x, x/z, z/z 52.0/41.9/6.1 50.0/40.4/9.6 49.7/43.0/7.3 55.6/36.4/8.0 
 x/x, x/z−2, z−2/z−2 59.8/33.8/6.3 59.3/34.6/6.1 59.9/34.3/5.8 58.8/33.7/7.5 
 x/x, x/z−4, z−4/z−4 89.1/10.9/0 88.2/11.8/0 89.8/10.2/0 85.6/14.4/0 
 CC, CT, TT 65.9/28.4/5.7 60.4/34.3/5.4 65.3/29.6/5.1 59.4/33.7/7.0 
Allele frequency (%)     
 z+6 4.5 3.4 4.7 2.5 
 z+4 6.9 6.1 7.3 4.6 
 z+2 30.2 29.7 28.8 33.1 
 Z 27.1 30.0 28.8 26.2 
 z−2 23.3 23.4 23.0 24.4 
 z−4 5.5 5.9 5.1 7.2 
 X 2.5 1.5 2.3 2.0 
 C 80.1 77.6 80.1 76.3 
 T 19.9 22.5 19.9 23.8 
*

Statistically significant (P < 0.05) when the combined genotype (x/z+6 or z+6/z+6) was compared between patients with retinopathy (4.3%) and without retinopathy (9.1%). x = any other (CA)n allele.

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