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Table 1—

Sample characteristics

No diabetes and no major depression (%)Major depression (%)Diabetes alone (%)Diabetes and comorbid major depression (%)P value
N (n173,833,043 (26,376) 11,050,391 (1,852) 9,385,893 (1,624) 932,298 (170)  
Age ≥65 years 15.5 7.0 41.7 19.6 <0.0001 
Women 51.2 67.5 51.9 64.5 <0.0001 
Race/ethnicity     <0.0001 
  Non-Hispanic white 75.1 77.8 68.6 67.4  
  Hispanic 10.2 7.8 11.4 12.9  
  Non-Hispanic black 10.8 10.7 16.6 13.0  
  Non-Hispanic other 3.9 3.7 3.4 6.7  
Education      
  High school or more 83.0 81.9 70.5 71.7 <0.0001 
Annual income      
  ≥$20,000 80.6 69.7 68.4 55.0 <0.0001 
Census region     0.004 
  West 18.8 20.9 16.6 18.8  
  South 35.9 37.2 38.3 41.7  
  Midwest 25.8 26.5 24.5 17.7  
  Northeast 19.5 15.4 20.6 21.8  
Disability-associated comorbidity*      
  Chronic arthritis 10.8 20.9 27.9 46.4 <0.0001 
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4.7 13.4 8.3 15.3 <0.0001 
  Coronary artery disease 9.4 14.0 32.2 46.4 <0.0001 
  Stroke 1.6 3.0 6.8 13.1 <0.0001 
  Heart failure 0.9 0.8 6.9 9.9 <0.0001 
≥1 disability-associated comorbidity 21.1 37.3 52.3 67.2 <0.0001 
No diabetes and no major depression (%)Major depression (%)Diabetes alone (%)Diabetes and comorbid major depression (%)P value
N (n173,833,043 (26,376) 11,050,391 (1,852) 9,385,893 (1,624) 932,298 (170)  
Age ≥65 years 15.5 7.0 41.7 19.6 <0.0001 
Women 51.2 67.5 51.9 64.5 <0.0001 
Race/ethnicity     <0.0001 
  Non-Hispanic white 75.1 77.8 68.6 67.4  
  Hispanic 10.2 7.8 11.4 12.9  
  Non-Hispanic black 10.8 10.7 16.6 13.0  
  Non-Hispanic other 3.9 3.7 3.4 6.7  
Education      
  High school or more 83.0 81.9 70.5 71.7 <0.0001 
Annual income      
  ≥$20,000 80.6 69.7 68.4 55.0 <0.0001 
Census region     0.004 
  West 18.8 20.9 16.6 18.8  
  South 35.9 37.2 38.3 41.7  
  Midwest 25.8 26.5 24.5 17.7  
  Northeast 19.5 15.4 20.6 21.8  
Disability-associated comorbidity*      
  Chronic arthritis 10.8 20.9 27.9 46.4 <0.0001 
  Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4.7 13.4 8.3 15.3 <0.0001 
  Coronary artery disease 9.4 14.0 32.2 46.4 <0.0001 
  Stroke 1.6 3.0 6.8 13.1 <0.0001 
  Heart failure 0.9 0.8 6.9 9.9 <0.0001 
≥1 disability-associated comorbidity 21.1 37.3 52.3 67.2 <0.0001 

n = 30,022; N = 195,201,625. n, unweighted sample size; N, weighted sample size; %, weighted percentage.

*

These conditions are typically associated with significant functional limitation/disability. Chronic arthritis is defined as having rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis, or other types of arthritis.

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