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Table 3—

Adjusted odds of functional limitation by disease category

Major depression onlyDiabetes onlyDiabetes and major depression
Difficulty walking 12 city blocks 2.86 (2.44–3.34) 2.74 (2.34–3.22) 8.09 (5.12–12.78) 
Difficulty climbing 10 steps 2.61 (2.20–3.08) 2.43 (2.05–2.88) 7.00 (4.41–11.07) 
Difficulty standing on feet for 2 h 2.56 (2.23–2.94) 2.34 (2.00–2.73) 6.34 (4.13–9.74) 
Difficulty sitting for 2 h 3.15 (2.71–3.66) 1.51 (1.26–1.80) 3.52 (2.32–5.35) 
Difficulty stooping, bending, or kneeling 2.61 (2.26–3.02) 2.32 (2.00–2.70) 4.61 (2.98–7.13) 
Difficulty reaching over head 3.24 (2.73–3.84) 1.73 (1.45–2.07) 3.67 (2.35–5.73) 
Difficulty grasping small objects 2.32 (1.96–2.76) 2.11 (1.77–2.52) 3.82 (2.47–5.93) 
Difficulty lifting 10 pounds 2.76 (2.36–3.22) 2.26 (1.90–2.68) 7.10 (4.58–11.01) 
Difficulty pushing or pulling heavy objects 2.75 (2.37–3.19) 2.20 (1.87–2.59) 6.44 (4.28–9.70) 
Difficulty shopping 3.30 (2.77–3.92) 2.42 (2.01–2.91) 6.16 (4.01–9.45) 
Difficulty visiting friends 4.13 (3.49–4.88) 2.12 (1.76–2.54) 5.66 (3.61–8.90) 
Difficulty watching television or listening to music to relax 5.65 (4.55–7.00) 1.96 (1.52–2.53) 6.63 (3.93–11.17) 
Major depression onlyDiabetes onlyDiabetes and major depression
Difficulty walking 12 city blocks 2.86 (2.44–3.34) 2.74 (2.34–3.22) 8.09 (5.12–12.78) 
Difficulty climbing 10 steps 2.61 (2.20–3.08) 2.43 (2.05–2.88) 7.00 (4.41–11.07) 
Difficulty standing on feet for 2 h 2.56 (2.23–2.94) 2.34 (2.00–2.73) 6.34 (4.13–9.74) 
Difficulty sitting for 2 h 3.15 (2.71–3.66) 1.51 (1.26–1.80) 3.52 (2.32–5.35) 
Difficulty stooping, bending, or kneeling 2.61 (2.26–3.02) 2.32 (2.00–2.70) 4.61 (2.98–7.13) 
Difficulty reaching over head 3.24 (2.73–3.84) 1.73 (1.45–2.07) 3.67 (2.35–5.73) 
Difficulty grasping small objects 2.32 (1.96–2.76) 2.11 (1.77–2.52) 3.82 (2.47–5.93) 
Difficulty lifting 10 pounds 2.76 (2.36–3.22) 2.26 (1.90–2.68) 7.10 (4.58–11.01) 
Difficulty pushing or pulling heavy objects 2.75 (2.37–3.19) 2.20 (1.87–2.59) 6.44 (4.28–9.70) 
Difficulty shopping 3.30 (2.77–3.92) 2.42 (2.01–2.91) 6.16 (4.01–9.45) 
Difficulty visiting friends 4.13 (3.49–4.88) 2.12 (1.76–2.54) 5.66 (3.61–8.90) 
Difficulty watching television or listening to music to relax 5.65 (4.55–7.00) 1.96 (1.52–2.53) 6.63 (3.93–11.17) 

Data are OR (95% CI). Note: No diabetes and no major depression is the reference disease category. ORs are adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, census region, and disability-associated comorbidity. Disability-associated comorbidity is defined as having any one of the following: chronic arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, or heart failure.

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