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Table 4—

Factors independently associated with overall functional disability

Adjusted OR95% CI
Disease category   
  No diabetes and no major depression (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  Major depression 3.00 2.62–3.42 
  Diabetes 2.42 2.10–2.79 
  Diabetes and major depression 7.15 4.53–11.28 
Age   
  <65 years (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  ≥65 years 2.83 2.61–3.08 
Sex   
  Men (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  Women 1.45 1.35–1.56 
Race/ethnicity   
  Non-Hispanic white (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  Hispanic 0.52 0.46–0.60 
  Non-Hispanic black 0.82 0.74–0.92 
  Non-Hispanic other 0.65 0.55–0.78 
Education   
  ≥High school (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  <High school 1.54 1.39–1.70 
Household income   
  ≥$20,000 (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  <$20,000 1.54 1.41–1.67 
Census region   
  West (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  South 1.36 1.21–1.53 
  Midwest 1.03 0.92–1.15 
  Northeast 1.31 1.15–1.49 
Disability-associated comorbidity*   
  No (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  Yes 4.94 4.60–5.31 
Adjusted OR95% CI
Disease category   
  No diabetes and no major depression (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  Major depression 3.00 2.62–3.42 
  Diabetes 2.42 2.10–2.79 
  Diabetes and major depression 7.15 4.53–11.28 
Age   
  <65 years (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  ≥65 years 2.83 2.61–3.08 
Sex   
  Men (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  Women 1.45 1.35–1.56 
Race/ethnicity   
  Non-Hispanic white (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  Hispanic 0.52 0.46–0.60 
  Non-Hispanic black 0.82 0.74–0.92 
  Non-Hispanic other 0.65 0.55–0.78 
Education   
  ≥High school (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  <High school 1.54 1.39–1.70 
Household income   
  ≥$20,000 (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  <$20,000 1.54 1.41–1.67 
Census region   
  West (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  South 1.36 1.21–1.53 
  Midwest 1.03 0.92–1.15 
  Northeast 1.31 1.15–1.49 
Disability-associated comorbidity*   
  No (reference) 1.00 1.00–1.00 
  Yes 4.94 4.60–5.31 
*

Disability-associated comorbidity is defined as having any one of the following: chronic arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, or heart failure. Chronic arthritis is defined as having rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis, or other types of arthritis.

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