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TABLE 1

Characteristics of the cohort that reached exam 5

No diabetesDiabetesP*
n 1,674 900  
Age (years) 76.9 ± 4.0 77.0 ± 4.1 >0.2 
Education (years) 10.7 ± 3.1 10.7 ± 3.2 >0.2 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 129.7 ± 15.8 134.0 ± 16.7 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.8 ± 9.4 83.5 ± 9.9 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 2.7 24.4 ± 2.8 <0.001 
Antihypertension treatment 38.9 48.9 <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 216.2 ± 30.9 220.2 ± 32.9 0.003 
APOE ε4 (%) 18.3 18.0 >0.2 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 102.2 ± 8.3 132.3 ± 39.5 <0.001 
2-h glucose (mg/dl)§ 138.5 ± 32.7 247.0 ± 55.0 <0.001 
Fasting insulin (μIU/ml) 13.5 ± 8.4 20.2 ± 27.2 <0.001 
2-h insulin (μIU/ml)§ 115.8 ± 92.3 120.3 ± 89.2 <0.001 
Diabetes medications    
 Oral hypoglycemic (%) — 24.7  
 Insulin (%) — 5.8  
Alcohol (g/day) 11.3 ± 19.5 11.0 ± 20.6 >0.2 
Smoking status (%)    
 Former 34.9 33.9 >0.2 
 Current 27.7 27.5 >0.2 
ABI 1.05 ± 0.1 1.04 ± 0.2 0.112 
Prevalent CHD (%) 12.4 20.4 <0.001 
Prevalent stroke (%) 3.6 4.8 0.192 
Incident dementia (%) 4.5 5.9 0.138 
Incident VsD (%) 1.0 1.9 0.080 
Incident AD (%) 2.2 3.5 0.127 
Incident AD without CVD (%) 1.8 2.2 >0.2 
No diabetesDiabetesP*
n 1,674 900  
Age (years) 76.9 ± 4.0 77.0 ± 4.1 >0.2 
Education (years) 10.7 ± 3.1 10.7 ± 3.2 >0.2 
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 129.7 ± 15.8 134.0 ± 16.7 <0.001 
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.8 ± 9.4 83.5 ± 9.9 <0.001 
BMI (kg/m2) 23.6 ± 2.7 24.4 ± 2.8 <0.001 
Antihypertension treatment 38.9 48.9 <0.001 
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 216.2 ± 30.9 220.2 ± 32.9 0.003 
APOE ε4 (%) 18.3 18.0 >0.2 
Fasting glucose (mg/dl) 102.2 ± 8.3 132.3 ± 39.5 <0.001 
2-h glucose (mg/dl)§ 138.5 ± 32.7 247.0 ± 55.0 <0.001 
Fasting insulin (μIU/ml) 13.5 ± 8.4 20.2 ± 27.2 <0.001 
2-h insulin (μIU/ml)§ 115.8 ± 92.3 120.3 ± 89.2 <0.001 
Diabetes medications    
 Oral hypoglycemic (%) — 24.7  
 Insulin (%) — 5.8  
Alcohol (g/day) 11.3 ± 19.5 11.0 ± 20.6 >0.2 
Smoking status (%)    
 Former 34.9 33.9 >0.2 
 Current 27.7 27.5 >0.2 
ABI 1.05 ± 0.1 1.04 ± 0.2 0.112 
Prevalent CHD (%) 12.4 20.4 <0.001 
Prevalent stroke (%) 3.6 4.8 0.192 
Incident dementia (%) 4.5 5.9 0.138 
Incident VsD (%) 1.0 1.9 0.080 
Incident AD (%) 2.2 3.5 0.127 
Incident AD without CVD (%) 1.8 2.2 >0.2 

Data are means ± SD unless otherwise specified.

*

Age-adjusted P values from linear and logistic regression models;

variable measured at exam 4;

variable measured at midlife;

§

among diabetic subjects the variable was available only for newly detected cases at exam 4;

variable measured at exam 5.

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