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TABLE 4

Risk of incident dementia associated with diabetes and APOE ε4: the HAAS

UnadjustedAdjusted*Adjusted
Total dementia    
 Diabetes only 1.3 (0.9–2.0) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 
 APOE ε4 only 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 1.4 (0.8–2.5) 
 Diabetes/ε4 1.9 (1.1–3.6) 2.3 (1.2–4.4) 2.6 (1.3–5.1) 
 ε4 × diabetes interaction term P > 0.2    
VsD    
 Diabetes only 1.6 (0.7–3.5) 2.0 (0.8–4.7) 1.9 (0.8–4.6) 
 APOE ε4 only 0.7 (0.2–2.9) 0.8 (0.2–3.6) 0.7 (0.1–3.1) 
 Diabetes/ε4 2.6 (0.8–7.9) 3.7 (1.1–12.5) 2.8 (0.8–9.8) 
 ε4 × diabetes interaction term P > 0.2    
AD§    
 Diabetes only 1.5 (0.9–2.6) 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 1.6 (0.9–2.8) 
 APOE ε4 only 1.9 (0.9–3.7) 2.1 (1.1–4.3) 2.0 (0.9–4.0) 
 Diabetes/ε4 2.7 (1.3–5.8) 3.4 (1.5–7.5) 4.4 (1.9–10.0) 
 ε4 × diabetes interaction term P > 0.2    
AD without CVD    
 Diabetes only 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 
 APOE ε4 only 1.7 (0.8–3.9) 2.0 (0.9–4.6) 1.7 (0.7–4.2) 
 Diabetes/ε4 3.3 (1.5–7.6) 4.2 (1.8–9.9) 5.5 (2.2–13.7) 
 ε4 × diabetes interaction term P = 0.114    
UnadjustedAdjusted*Adjusted
Total dementia    
 Diabetes only 1.3 (0.9–2.0) 1.2 (0.8–1.9) 1.4 (0.9–2.2) 
 APOE ε4 only 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 1.6 (0.9–2.7) 1.4 (0.8–2.5) 
 Diabetes/ε4 1.9 (1.1–3.6) 2.3 (1.2–4.4) 2.6 (1.3–5.1) 
 ε4 × diabetes interaction term P > 0.2    
VsD    
 Diabetes only 1.6 (0.7–3.5) 2.0 (0.8–4.7) 1.9 (0.8–4.6) 
 APOE ε4 only 0.7 (0.2–2.9) 0.8 (0.2–3.6) 0.7 (0.1–3.1) 
 Diabetes/ε4 2.6 (0.8–7.9) 3.7 (1.1–12.5) 2.8 (0.8–9.8) 
 ε4 × diabetes interaction term P > 0.2    
AD§    
 Diabetes only 1.5 (0.9–2.6) 1.4 (0.8–2.4) 1.6 (0.9–2.8) 
 APOE ε4 only 1.9 (0.9–3.7) 2.1 (1.1–4.3) 2.0 (0.9–4.0) 
 Diabetes/ε4 2.7 (1.3–5.8) 3.4 (1.5–7.5) 4.4 (1.9–10.0) 
 ε4 × diabetes interaction term P > 0.2    
AD without CVD    
 Diabetes only 1.0 (0.5–2.1) 1.0 (0.5–2.0) 1.1 (0.5–2.4) 
 APOE ε4 only 1.7 (0.8–3.9) 2.0 (0.9–4.6) 1.7 (0.7–4.2) 
 Diabetes/ε4 3.3 (1.5–7.6) 4.2 (1.8–9.9) 5.5 (2.2–13.7) 
 ε4 × diabetes interaction term P = 0.114    

Data are RR (95% CI). Participants with no diabetes and no ε4 served as the reference group to calculate RR and 95% CI.

*

Adjusted for age, education, smoking status, and alcohol use;

adjusted for age, education, smoking status, alcohol, midlife cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, BMI, ABI, stroke, and CHD;

ε4 × diabetes interaction term represents the cross-product between ε4 and diabetes, the analysis was adjusted as in the model in the † footnote;

§

AD definition includes subjects with concomitant CVD contribution to dementia.

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